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|American style Akitas (left) and Japanese style Akitas (right)|
|Other names||Akita Inu, Japanese Akita, American Akita, Great Japanese Dog (Obsolete)|
|Country of origin||Japan|
|Dog (Canis lupus familiaris)|
The Akita (秋田犬 Akita-inu ) is a large spitz breed of dog originating from the mountainous northern regions of Japan. There are two separate varieties of Akita: a Japanese strain, known as the "Akita Inu" or "Japanese Akita"; and an American strain, known as the "Akita" or "American Akita". The Japanese strain comes in a small choice of colors, with all other colors considered atypical of the breed, while the American strain comes in all dog colors. The Akita has a short double coat, similar to that of many other northern spitz breeds such as the Siberian Husky, but long coated dogs can be found in many litters due to a recessive gene.
The Akita is a strong, independent and dominant breed, commonly aloof with strangers but affectionate with family members. As a breed, Akitas are generally hardy, but they have been known to suffer from various genetic conditions and be sensitive to certain drugs.
The American strain of Akita is now considered a separate breed from the Japanese Akita in many countries around the world, with the notable exceptions of the United States and Canada. In the U.S. and Canada, both strains are considered a single breed with differences in type rather than two separate breeds. During a short period, the American strain of Akita was known in some countries as the "Great Japanese Dog". Both forms of Akita are probably best known worldwide from the true story of Hachikō, a loyal Akita dog who lived in Japan before World War II.
There is debate amongst fanciers if there are two separate breeds of Akita. To date, only the American Kennel Club, and the Canadian Kennel Clubconsider American and Japanese style Akitas to be two varieties of the same breed, allowing free breeding between the two. The Federation Cynologique Internationale, The Kennel Club, the Australian National Kennel Council, the New Zealand Kennel Club, and the Japan Kennel Club consider Japanese and American style Akitas as separate breeds. Some countries refer to the American style Akita as simply the "Akita" and not the American Akita. The issue is especially controversial in Japan. Formally, for the FCI's 84 countries, the breed split occurred June 1999, when the FCI decided that the American type would be called the Great Japanese Dog, later renamed the American Akita in January 2006.
Japanese history 
Japanese history, both verbal and written, describe the ancestors of the Akita, the Matagi dog （Japanese:マタギ犬）（hunting dog, Bear hunting dog, Deer hunting dog), as one of the oldest of the native dogs. Today's Akita developed primarily from dogs in the northernmost region of the island of Honshū in the Akita prefecture, thus providing the breed's name. The Matagi's quarry included wild boar, Sika deer, and Asian black bear. This precursor dog tracked large game, holding it at bay until hunters arrived to make the kill. The breed is also influenced by crosses with larger breeds from Asia and Europe, including English Mastiffs, Great Danes, St. Bernards, and the Tosa Inu, in the desire to develop a fighting dog for the burgeoning dog fighting industry in Odate in the early 20th century. During World War II the Akita was also crossed with German Shepherd Dogs in an attempt to save them from the war time government order for all non-military dogs to be culled. The ancestors of the American style Akita were originally a variety of the Japanese style Akita, a form that was not desired in Japan due to the markings, and which is not eligible for show competition.
The story of Hachikō, one of the most revered Akitas of all time, helped push the Akita into the international dog world Hachiko was born in 1923 and owned by Professor Hidesaburō Ueno of Tokyo. Professor Ueno lived near the Shibuya Train Station in a suburb of the city and commuted to work every day on the train. Hachikō accompanied his master to and from the station each day. On May 25, 1925, when the dog was 18 months old, he waited for his master's arrival on the four o'clock train, but Professor Ueno had suffered a fatal stroke at work. Hachikō continued to wait for his master's return. He travelled to and from the station each day for the next nine years. He allowed the professor's relatives to care for him, but he never gave up the vigil at the station for his master. His vigil became world renowned when, in 1934, shortly before his death, a bronze statue was erected at the Shibuya train station in his honor. This statue was melted down for munitions during the war and new one was commissioned once the war ended. Each year on April 8 since 1936, Hachikō's devotion has been honoured with a solemn ceremony of remembrance at Tokyo's Shibuya railroad station. Eventually, Hachikō's legendary faithfulness became a national symbol of loyalty, particularly to the person and institution of the Emperor.
In 1931, the Akita was officially declared a Japanese Natural Monument. The Mayor of Odate City in Akita Prefecture organized the Akita Inu Hozankai to preserve the original Akita as a Japanese natural treasure through careful breeding. In 1934 the first Japanese breed standard for the Akita Inu was listed, following the breeds declaration as a natural monument of Japan. In 1967, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Akita Dog Preservation Society, the Akita Dog Museum was built to house information, documents and photos.
In 1937, Helen Keller travelled to Japan. She expressed a keen interest in the breed and was presented with the first two Akitas to enter the US. The first dog, presented to her by Mr. Ogasawara and named Kamikaze-go, died at five months of age from Distemper, one month after her return to the States. A second Akita was arranged to be sent to Miss Keller: Kamikaze's litter brother, Kenzan-go. Kenzan-go died in the mid-1940s. By 1939 a breed standard had been established and dog shows had been held, but such activities stopped after World War II began. Keller wrote in the Akita Journal:
|“||If ever there was an angel in fur, it was Kamikaze. I know I shall never feel quite the same tenderness for any other pet. The Akita dog has all the qualities that appeal to me — he is gentle, companionable and trusty.||”|
Just as the breed was stabilizing in its native land, World War II pushed the Akita to the brink of extinction. Early in the war the dogs suffered from lack of nutritious food. Then many were killed to be eaten by the starving populace, and their pelts were used as clothing. Finally, the government ordered all remaining dogs to be killed on sight to prevent the spread of disease. The only way concerned owners could save their beloved Akitas was to turn them loose in remote mountain areas, where they bred back with their ancestor dogs, the Matagi, or conceal them from authorities by means of crossing with German Shepherd dogs, and naming them in the style of German Shepherd dogs of the time. Morie Sawataishi and his efforts to breed the Akita is a major reason we know this breed today.
During the occupation years following the war, the breed began to thrive again through the efforts of Sawataishi and others. For the first time, Akitas were bred for a standardized appearance. Akita fanciers in Japan began gathering and exhibiting the remaining Akitas and producing litters in order to restore the breed to sustainable numbers and to accentuate the original characteristics of the breed muddied by crosses to other breeds. U.S. servicemen fell in love with the Akita and imported many with them upon their return.
American history 
The Japanese style Akita and American style Akita began to diverge in type during the Post–World War II era. It was during this time, that US servicemen serving as part of the occupation force in Japan first came into contact with the Akita, the breed so impressed them that many soldiers chose to bring an Akita back home with them upon completion of their tour. American soldiers were typically more impressed with the larger more bear-like fighting Akita or German Shepherd type than they were with the smaller framed and fox-like Akita-Inu; the types of dogs they brought back with them to the US reflected this sentiment. Japanese style Akita fanciers focused on restoring the breed as a work of Japanese art or to 'Natural Monument' status. American style Akita fanciers chose to breed larger, heavier-boned and more intimidating dogs. Although, both types derive from a common ancestry, there are marked differences between the two. First, while American style Akitas are acceptable in all colors, Japanese style Akitas are only permitted to be red, fawn, sesame, white, or brindle. Additionally, American style Akitas may be pinto and/or have black masks, unlike Japanese style Akitas where it is considered a disqualification and not permitted in the breed standards. American style Akitas generally are heavier boned and larger, with a more bear-like head, whereas Japanese style Akitas tend to be lighter and more finely featured with a fox-like head.
Recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1955, it was placed in the Miscellaneous class. It wasn't until the end of 1972 that the AKC approved the Akita standard and it was moved to the Working dog class, as such, the Akita is a rather new breed in the United States. Foundation stock in America continued to be imported from Japan until 1974 when the AKC cut off registration to any further Japanese imports until 1992 when it recognized the Japan Kennel Club. The decision by the AKC to disallow the registration of any further imported dogs in 1974, set the stage for the divergence in type between the American Akita and Japanese Akita Inu that is present today by making the Fighting Dog type the foundation stock of the American Akita.
Elsewhere in the world, the American style Akita was first introduced to the UK in 1937, he was a Canadian import, owned by a Mrs. Jenson, however the breed was not widely known until the early 1980s. The breed was introduced in Australia in 1982 with an American Import and to New Zealand in 1986 with an import from the U.K.
As a spitz breed, the appearance of the Akita reflects cold weather adaptations essential to their original function. The Akita is a substantial breed for its height with heavy bones. Characteristic physical traits of the breed include a large, bear-like head with erect, triangular ears set at a slight angle following the arch of the neck. Additionally, the eyes of the Akita are small, dark, deeply set and triangular in shape. Akitas have thick double coats, and tight, well knuckled cat-like feet. Their tails are carried over the top of the back in a gentle or double curl down the loin.
Mature American type males measure typically 26–28 inches (66–71 cm) at the withers and weigh between 100–130 lb (45–59 kg). Mature females typically measure 24–26 inches (61–66 cm) and weigh between 70–100 lb (32–45 kg). The Japanese type, as stated in the breed standards, are a little smaller and lighter.
Breed standards state that all dog breed coat colors are allowable in the American style Akita, including pinto, all types of brindle, solid white, black mask, white mask, self-colored mask, even differing colors of under coat and overlay (guard hairs). This includes the common Shiba Inu coloring pattern known as Urajiro. The Japanese style Akitas, as per the breed standards, are restricted to red, fawn, sesame, brindle, pure white, all with "Urajiro" markings i.e., whitish coat on the sides of the muzzle, on the cheeks, on the underside of jaw, neck, chest, body and tail and on the inside of the legs.
Coat types 
There are two coat types in the Akita, the standard coat length and the long coat. The long coat is considered a fault in the show ring, however, they still make good pets. The long coat, also known as 'Moku' is the result of an autosomal recessive gene and may only occur phenotypically if both sire and dam are carriers. They have longer (about 3–4 inches in length) and softer coats and are known to have sweeter temperaments. It is believed that this gene comes from the now extinct Karafuto-Ken 樺太犬.
It is territorial about its property, and can be reserved with strangers. It is feline in its actions; it is not unusual for an Akita to clean its face after eating, to preen its kennel mate, and to be fastidious in the house. They are known to be intolerant of other dogs of the same gender, as stated in the AKC breed standard.
Since it is a large, powerful dog, the Akita is not considered a breed for a first time dog owner. The breed has been targeted by some countries' breed-specific legislation as a dangerous dog. The Akita is a large, strong, independent and dominant dog. A dog with the correct Akita temperament should be accepting of non-threatening strangers, yet protective of their family when faced with a threatening situation. They are usually docile, aloof and calm in new situations. As a breed they should be good with children, it is said that the breed has an affinity for children. Not all Akitas, nor all dogs, will necessarily have the same temperament.
The Akita was never bred to live or work in groups like many hound and sporting breeds. Instead, they lived and worked alone or in pairs, a preference reflected today. Akitas tend to take a socially dominant role with other dogs, and thus caution must be used in situations when Akitas are likely to be around other dogs, especially unfamiliar ones. In particular, Akitas tend to be less tolerant of dogs of the same sex. For this reason, Akitas, unless highly socialized, are not generally well-suited for off-leash dog parks. The Akita is intelligent, courageous, fearless, and careful. Sometimes spontaneous, it needs a firm, confident, consistent pack leader, without which the dog will be very wilful and may become very aggressive to other dogs and animals.
Autoimmune diseases 
There are many autoimmune diseases that are known to sometimes occur in the Akita. These include, but are not limited to:
- Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome,[A] also known as Uveo-Dermatologic Syndrome is an auto-immune condition which affects the skin and eyes.
- Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia, which is an autoimmune blood disorder.
- Sebaceous Adenitis is an autoimmune skin disorder believed to be of autosomal recessive inheritance.
- Pemphigus Foliaceus is an autoimmune skin disorder, believed to be genetic.
- Systemic Lupus Erythematosus also known as SLE or lupus, is a systemic autoimmune disease (or autoimmune connective tissue disease) that can affect any part of the body.
Immune-mediated endocrine diseases 
- Addison’s Disease also known as hypoadrenocorticism, it affects the adrenal glands and is essentially the opposite to Cushing's syndrome.
- Cushing’s Syndrome also known as Hyperadrenocorticism, it affects the adrenal glands and is caused by long-term exposure to high levels of glucocorticosteroids, either manufactured by the body or given as medications.
- Diabetes mellitus also known as type 1 diabetes. It affects the pancreas.
- Hypothyroidism,[B] also known as autoimmune hypothyroidism. This is an autoimmune disease which affects the thyroid gland.
Non immune specific conditions 
Other non-immune specific conditions known to have occurred in the Akita include:
- Gastric Dilation is also known as bloat; may progressive to gastric dilation-voluvulus (GDV, also called gastric torsion), in which the stomach twists on itself.
- Microphthalmia, meaning "small eyes", is a developmental disorder of the eye, believed to be an autosomal recessive genetic condition.
- Primary Glaucoma, Increased pressure in the eye.
- Progressive Retinal Atrophy[C] progressive degeneration of the retina (portion of the eye that senses light and allows sight).
- Hip dysplasia a skeletal condition where the head of the femur does not fit properly into the hip socket. Leads to osteoarthritis and pain.
- Elbow dysplasia a skeletal condition in which the components of the elbow joint (the humerus, radius, and ulna) do not line up properly, leading to osteoarthritis and pain.
- Von Willebrands Disease, a genetic bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency in Von Willebrand factor.
Breed specific conditions 
There are two breed specific conditions mentioned in veterinary literature:
- Immune Sensitivity to vaccines, drugs, insecticides, anesthetics and tranquilizers
- Pseudohyperkalemia, a rise in the amount of potassium that occurs due to its excessive leakage from red blood cells (RBCs) when blood is drawn. This can give a false indication of hyperkalemia on lab tests, hence the prefix pseudo, meaning false. This occurs because many eastern Asian breeds, including Akitas and Shiba Inus, have a higher level of potassium in their RBCs than other dogs.[D]
Working life 
Predecessors of the modern Akita were used for hunting bear, wild boar and deer in Japan as late as 1957. They would be used to flush out the bear and keep it at bay until the hunter could come and kill it. Today, the breed is used primarily as a companion dog. However, the breed is currently also known to be used as therapy dogs, and compete in all dog competitions including: conformation showing, obedience trials, canine good citizen program, tracking trials and agility competition, as well as weight pulling, hunting and schutzhund (i.e., personal protection dogs).
See also 
- Ginga: Nagareboshi Gin
- Hidesaburō Ueno
- Hachiko: A Dog's Story
- Hokkaido (dog)
- Kai Ken
- Nihon Ken Hozonkai
- Shiba Inu
- Shikoku (dog)
- Angles, J.M.; Famula, T. R.; Pedersen, N. C. (2005). "Uveodermatologic (VKH-like) syndrome in American Akita dogs is associated with an increased frequency of DQA1*00201". Tissue Antigens 66 (6): 656–65. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00508.x. PMID 16305682.
- Kennedy, L.J.; Quarmby, S.; Happ, G. M.; Barnes, A.; Ramsey, I. K.; Dixon, R. M.; Catchpole, B.; Rusbridge, C. et al. (July 2006). "Association of canine hypothyroidism with a common major histocompatibility complex DLA class II allele". Tissue Antigens 68 (1): 82–86. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00614.x. PMID 16774545. Retrieved 8 October 2011. "Breeds predisposed to hypothyroidism include Doberman Pinschers and golden retrievers, Borzois, giant schnauzers, Akitas, Irish setters, old English sheepdogs, Skye terriers, Shetland sheepdogs, Airedale terriers, American cocker spaniels, miniature schnauzers ..."
- Clements, P.J.M.; Sargan, D. R.; Gould, D. J.; Petersen-Jones, S. M. (April 1996). "Recent advances in understanding the spectrum of canine generalized progressive retinal atrophy". Journal of Small Animal Practice 37 (4): 155–162. doi:10.1111/j.1748-5827.1996.tb01950.x. PMID 8731401.
- Battison, A. (March 2007). "Apparent pseudohyperkalemia in a Chinese Shar Pei dog". Veterinary Clinical Pathology 36 (1): 89–93. doi:10.1111/j.1939-165X.2007.tb00188.x. PMID 17311201. Retrieved 10 October 2011. "High-potassium erythrocytes have been reported in Akitas, Shibas, Jindos, other East Asian dog breeds, and occasionally, in mixed-breed dogs."
- Cassidy, Kelly M. (February 2008). "Breed Longevity Data". Retrieved September 18, 2012.
- "Akita Breed Standard" (website). American Kennel Club. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- "FCI standard #344, American Akita" (document). Federation Cynologique Internationale. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- "UK Breed Standard for Japanese Style" (website). The Kennel Club. Retrieved 15 October 2011.[dead link]
- "UK Breed Standard for American Style" (website). The Kennel Club. Retrieved 15 October 2011.[dead link]
- "Australian Breed Standard" (website). Australian National Kennel Council. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- "NZ Standard for American Style" (website). New Zealand Kennel Club. Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011.[dead link]
- "NZ Standard for Japanese Style" (website). New Zealand Kennel Club. Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011.[dead link]
- Kaluzniacki, DVM, Sophia. "The Akita Dilemma – One Breed or Two? : a historical perspective" (website). Tamarlane. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- Itagaki, Dr. Shiro. "The Preservation and Development of Japanese Dogs" (pdf). Akita Learning Center. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- "Akita Inu Breed History". Japanese Akita Inu Club Great Britain. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- Killilea, David; Jenny Killilea (1988). The Akita Today. Glouchestershire, UK: Ringpress Books Ltd. pp. 15–16. ISBN 1-86054-099-6.
- Chida, Hiroshi (27 November 2003). "Odate museum honors national dog, the Akita". Stripes Pacific Travel (Stars and Stripes). Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- Andrews, Barbara J. (1996). Akitas. N.J. USA: T.F.H Publications Inc. pp. 21–22. ISBN 0-7938-2760-4.
- American Kennel Club (listed author): The Complete Dog Book: The Photograph, History, and Official Standard of Every Breed Admitted to AKC Registration, and the Selection, Training, Breeding, Care, and Feeding of Pure-bred Dogs, Howell Book House, 1985, page 269. ISBN 0-87605-463-7.
- Ruthven Tremain, The Animals' Who's Who: 1,146 Celebrated Animals in History, Popular Culture, Literature, & Lore, Scribner, 1984, page 105. ISBN 0-684-17621-1. Accessed via Google Books August 21, 2008.
- Skabelund, Aaron Herald (23 September 2011). Canine Imperialism. Berfrois. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- Andrews, Barbara J. (1996). Akitas. N.J. USA: T.F.H. Publications Inc. p. 17. ISBN 0-7938-2760-4.
- "Morie Sawataishi: Saviour of Japan's Akita Samurai dog" (website). Japan: Daily Telegraph. 11 December 2008. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- Ogasawara, Ichiro. "Helen Keller and Akitas". Akita Learning Center. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- Killilea, David & Jenny (1998). The Akita Today. Glouchester, U.K.: Ringpress. ISBN 1-86054-099-6.
- Rick Beauchamp. "The Akita Inu: The Voice of Japan". Dog & Kennel. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
- "Helen Keller: First Akitas in the USA". Natural-akita.com. 14 June 1937. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
- Sherrill, Martha (28 February 2008). Dog Man: An Uncommon Life on a Faraway Mountain. City: Penguin Press USA. p. 256. ISBN 1-59420-124-2. ISBN 978-1-59420-124-0
- Kimura, Tatsuo. "A History Of The Akita Dog" (website). Akita Learning Center. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
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- "Akita Colors" (website). Tarmalane. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
- Taylor, Jason (1996). Guide to Owning an Akita. United States: TFH Publications. p. 21. ISBN 0-7938-1878-8.
- "Long Coat Akitas" (website). DoubleTake. Retrieved 17 April 2011.[unreliable source?]
- Andrews, Barbara J. (1996). Akitas. NJ, United States of America: TFH Publications Inc. p. 16. ISBN 0-7938-2760-4.
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- "Anti-Canine Legislation Information" (website). Akita Club of America. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- "Changes to NYCHA's Pet Policy" (pdf). New York City Housing Authority Journal (New York City Government) 39 (4). April 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
- "Restricted Dog Breeds" (website). Bermuda Minister of the Environment. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
- "Dangerous Dogs" (website). Department of Environment, Heritage, and Local Government. 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
- Wallis, Sherry E. "Akita Temperament" (website). Tarmalane. Retrieved 1 May 2011. "an Akita should like children. Just as retrievers like sticks and balls, this breed should have an affinity for children."[unreliable source?]
- Wallis, Sherry E. "Akita Behavior & Temperament" (website). Tarmalane. Retrieved 4 October 2011.[unreliable source?]
- Cottrell, Beverly D.; Barnett, K.C. (June 1987). "Harada's disease in the Japanese Akita". Journal of Small Animal Practice 28 (6): 517–521. doi:10.1111/j.1748-5827.1987.tb01445.x.
- Monaco, Marie. "Uveodermatologic Syndrome (UDS, VKH)". Samoyed Club of America. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- "Diseases of The Japanese Akita-Inu" (website). Japanese Akita Club of America. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- Day, M.J. (2). "Antigen specificity in canine autoimmune haemolytic anaemia". Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 69 (2–4): 215–224. doi:10.1016/S0165-2427(99)00055-0. PMID 10507306. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- Reichler, Iris M.; Hauser, Beat; Schiller, Irene; Dunstan, Robert W.; Credille, Kelly M.; Binder, Heinrich; Glaus, Toni; Arnold, Susi (October 2001). "Sebaceous adenitis in the Akita: clinical observations, histopathology and heredity". Veterinary Dermatology 12 (5): 243–253. doi:10.1046/j.0959-4493.2001.00251.x. PMID 11906649.
- Spaterna, A.; Antognoni, M.T; Cappuccini, S; Tesei, B (2003). "Sebaceous Adenitis in the Dog: Three Cases". Veterinary Research Communications 27 (Supplement 1): 441–443. doi:10.1023/B:VERC.0000014199.39879.bb. PMID 14535449.
- Pedersen, Niels C. "Determining whether risk for sebaceous adenitis of Standard Poodles is associated with a specific DLA class II genotype" (pdf). Retrieved 22 April 2011.
- Kuhl, K.A; Shofer, F.S; Goldschmidt, M.H (January 1994). "Comparative Histopathology of Pemphigus Foliaceus and Superficial Folliculitis in the Dog". Veterinary Pathology 31 (1): 19–27. doi:10.1177/030098589403100103. PMID 8140722. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- "Pemphigus" (website). The Akita Association (UK). Retrieved 22 April 2011.
- "Diseases in the American Akita" (pdf). Akita Rescue Mid-Atlantic Coast (USA). Retrieved 3 April 2011.
- Bouyet, Barbara; Meyers, Alicia; Eltinge, Steve; Dodds, Jean (2002). Akita, Treasure of Japan 2. Thousand Oaks, California, USA: Magnum Publishing. pp. 268–269. ISBN 0-9716146-0-1. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- "The Akita – Diseases" (website). Akita Alumni Dog Club. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- Bell, Jerold S. "Risk Factors for Canine Bloat" (website). malamute health. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
- "Microphthalmia" (website). Canine Inherited Disorders Database. 1998. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- Turner, Andrew; Hurn, Simon. "Eye Diseases and Information" (website). All Animal Eye Services. Retrieved 19 April 2011.[dead link]
- Startup, F. G (1 March 1986). "Hereditary eye problems in the Japanese Akita". Veterinary Record 118 (9): 251.
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- "Treatment Options for Mature Canine Hip Dysplasia (Osteoarthritis stage)". Colorado State University. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
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- Dodds, Jean (2005). "Bleeding Disorders" (website). World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress Proceedings. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- "Von Willebrand Disease" (pdf). The Furry Critter Network. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
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- "Bear hunting in Japan 1957" (website). Raritan River Akita Club inc. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
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- Andrews, Barbara J. (1996). "6 – Sport of purebred dogs". Akitas. N.J. USA: TFH Publications Inc. pp. 74–99. ISBN 0-7938-2760-4.
- Taylor, Jason (1996). Guide to Owning an Akita. N.J. USA: T.F.H. Publications Inc. p. 54. ISBN 0-7938-1878-8.
Further reading 
- Akita World. Bimonthly Akita Magazine.
- Skabelund, Aaron Herald (2011). Empire of Dogs: Canines, Japan, and the Making of the Modern Imperial World (A Study of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute (print ). Ithaca, NY: Columbia University. ISBN 978-0-8014-5025-9. ISBN 080145025X
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