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|Category 5 hurricane (SSHS)|
|Hurricane Andrew making landfall in Miami-Dade County, Florida on August 24, 1992|
|Highest winds||1-minute sustained:
165 mph (270 km/h)
|Fatalities||15 direct, 29 indirect|
|Damage||$25 billion (1992 USD)|
|Part of the 1992 Atlantic hurricane season|
The effects of Hurricane Andrew in the Florida proved to be the costliest disaster in the history of Florida, as well as the then-costliest on record in the United States. Hurricane Andrew formed from a tropical wave on August 16, 1992 in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. It moved west-northwest and remained weak for several days due to strong wind shear. However, after curving westward on August 22, the storm rapidly intensified to reach peak winds of 193 mph (280 km/h). Following its passage through The Bahamas, Andrew made landfall near Homestead, Florida as a Category 5 hurricane on August 24. Eventually, Andrew struck southern Louisiana before it dissipated over the eastern United States on August 28.
Strong winds from the hurricane significantly affected four counties in the state, which damaged or destroyed over 730,000 houses and buildings, while leaving more than 1 million without power. The storm surge impacted portions of Miami-Dade County, peaking at around 16.9 feet (5.2 m) in Homestead near the Burger King International Headquarters; the surge caused significant damage to boats and to the Charles Deering Estate. The nationwide maximum rainfall total from the hurricane was 13.98 inches (355 mm) in the western portion of Miami-Dade County. No major flooding was reported in the state. The hurricane caused about $25.3 billion (1992 USD) in damage and 44 deaths in the state—15 directly from the storm's effects and 29 indirectly related. Andrew was, at the time, the costliest hurricane in the history of the United States; it was later surpassed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, Hurricane Ike in 2008, and Hurricane Sandy in 2012.
Initially, forecasters predicted tides up to 14 feet (4.3 m) above normal along the East Coast of Florida, near the potential location of landfall. However, the National Hurricane Center later noted that storm surge up to 10 feet (3.0 m) would occur along the East Coast of Florida, as high as 13 feet (4.0 m) in Biscayne Bay, and a height of 11 feet (3.4 m) of the West Coast of Florida. Rainfall was predicted to be between 5 and 8 inches (130 and 200 mm) along the path of the storm. In addition, the National Hurricane Center noted the likelihood of isolated tornadoes in Central and South Florida during the passage of Andrew on August 23 and August 24.
Late on August 22, a hurricane watch was issued for the East Coast of Florida from Titusville to the Florida Keys, which included Dry Tortugas. On the following day, a hurricane warning was posted from Vero Beach southward to the Florida Keys and included Dry Tortugas. To the north, the east coast of Florida from Vero Beach to Titusville was placed under a tropical storm warning on August 23. Simultaneously, a hurricane watch was issued for the west coast of Florida from Bayport southward to near Flamingo. Later that day, the portion to the south of Venice was upgraded to a hurricane warning and was expanded to include Lake Okeechobee. However, to the north of Venice, the hurricane watch was downgraded to a tropical storm warning. By 1800 UTC on August 24, all watches and warnings issued in anticipation of the storm were discontinued.
Evacuations were ordered in nine counties, including Broward, Charlotte, Collier, Lee, Martin, Miami-Dade, Monroe, Palm Beach, Sarasota counties. Almost 1.2 million people evacuated, which contributed to low number of fatalities, despite the intensity of the storm. It was estimated that 20,000-30,000 tourists were in the Florida Keys before Andrew approached. Approximately 55,000 people fled the Florida Keys to the mainland; almost all evacuations occurred in the Upper and Middle Keys. In Lee County in western Florida, officials recommended an evacuation for the county on August 23, or about 20 hours before tropical storm force winds were reported there; about 75,000 people evacuated their homes in Lee County. Also on August 23, officials in Collier County issued a mandatory evacuation, which included the cities of Chokoloskee, Everglades, Goodland, Isles of Capri, Marco Island, Plantation Island, as well as portions of East Naples, Port Royal, and Vanderbilt Beach. Overall, 3,450 people stayed in the shelters opened in the county, while it is estimated that 43,000 evacuated.
Of the 2,500 people that fled Manatee County, approximately 400 of them took refuge at rest stops along Interstate 75. On Interstate 95 and Florida's Turnpike, bumper-to-bumper traffic was reported for more than 200 miles (320 km) and was regarded as probably the largest traffic jam in the history of Florida. Numerous tourists and evacuees completely occupied hotels and motels as far north as Ocala. At Walt Disney World Resort, a reservation clerk noted that all 15,739 hotel rooms on the property were booked. United States Coast Guard vessels along the coast were either secured onshore or sent to ride out the storm at sea.
|Broward County||3||$100 million|
|Collier County||0||$30 million|
|Miami-Dade County||40||$25 billion|
|Monroe County||1||$131 million|
Some officials in Florida considered Andrew the worst storm in the state since the Labor Day hurricane in 1935. Much of the damage in Florida was caused by high winds. Although effects from Andrew were catastrophic, the extent of damage was limited mainly from Kendall to Key Largo due to the small wind field of the storm. Following the storm, more than 1.4 million lost electricity and another 150,000 were without telephone service. It is estimated that throughout Florida some 63,000 homes were destroyed, leaving at least 175,000 people homeless.
In addition to houses, the storm damaged or destroyed 82,000 businesses, 32,900 acres of farmland, 31 public schools, 59 health facilities/hospitals, 9,500 traffic signals, 3,300 miles (5,300 km) of powerlines, and 3,000 watermains. Overall, Andrew caused $25.3 billion (1992 USD) in damage and 44 fatalities in the state of Florida alone. Of the 44 deaths, 15 were direct fatalities, while 29 were indirectly caused by the storm. It was later noted that had the storm been slightly larger or made landfall a few miles further north, it would have significantly affected Miami and Fort Lauderdale, which would have resulted in an even higher damage and death toll.
Miami-Dade County 
On the coastline, tides were generally light and usually ranged from 4 to 6 feet (1.2 to 1.8 m) in Biscayne Bay. However, at the Burger King International Headquarters, waves were reported to have reached 16.9 feet (5.2 m). Nearby at the Charles Deering Estate, 16 feet (4.9 m) waves ravaged the property and washed away from its foundation. Damage to repair that estate cost approximately $7.2 million (unknown USD). A large boat was littered ashore in a canal south of Derring Bay, where water levels were 14 feet (4.3 m) above normal. Many boats in southeast Florida were damage from high tides produced by the storm, most notably, the Belzona Barge was damaged, which was a 215 feet (66 m), 350-ton barge. In addition, the powerful seas also extensively damaged coral reef systems offshore of southeast Florida. It is estimated that the storm caused at least $500 million (1992 USD) in losses to boats. Throughout the state, rainfall totals ranged from light to moderate, with precipitation from the storm peaked at 13.98 inches (355 mm) in the Everglades portions of Miami-Dade County. At the Miami International Airport, 2.04 inches (52 mm) of rain was reported between in a span of 24 hours between early on August 24 and 25. Four other weather stations in the county recorded 7.41 inches (188 mm), 5.19 inches (132 mm), 4.48 inches (114 mm), and 4.12 inches (105 mm) of precipitation.
Extreme winds were reported in Miami-Dade County; at some locations, the anemometer was either destroyed or failed before the highest winds occurred. A home in Perrine reported winds of 212 mph (341 km/h). However, after a wind-tunnel testing at Clemson University of the same type of anemometer revealed a 16.5% error, that wind speed figure was revised downward to 177 mph (285 km/h). At the Kendall-Tamiami Executive Airport, sustained winds of 127 mph (204 km/h) was reported for three to five minutes, though the needle failed before conditions deteriorated further. Sustained winds of 115 mph (180 km/h) and gusts to 164 mph (269 km/h) were reported at the National Hurricane Center headquarters in Coral Gables. Shortly thereafter the anemometer and the WSR-57 radar at the National Hurricane Center were blown off the roof and destroyed. Offshore, the C-MAN station at Fowey Rocks reported sustained winds of 142 mph (229 km/h) and gusts to 169 mph (272 km/h). However, the instrument there failed shortly after 4 a.m. EDT (0800 UTC) on August 24. As the wind field of Andrew was small, the northern extent of hurricane force winds only reached to Miami Beach.
The Miami-Dade County Grand Jury reported that 90% of mobile homes in southern portions of the county were destroyed; furthermore, it was estimated that more than 99% of mobiles homes in Homestead were destroyed. In Miami-Dade County, alone, Andrew caused the destruction of 25,524 homes and damaged 101,241 others. In Country Walk and Saga Bay, F3-tornado-like damage was observed, mainly as a result of poor construction; winds between 130 and 150 mph (215 and 240 km/h) were reported. Four of the five condominiums at Naranja Lakes were damaged beyond repair, while the fifth was refurbished. At the Homestead Air Reserve Base, most of the 2,000 building on the base became "severely damaged or unusable"; only nine of the buildings at that location survived the storm. Shortly thereafter, 70 of the aircraft were flown to other Air Force Bases in the Southeastern United States.
Because it was directly in the path of Andrew, significant damage occurred at the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station. A water tank and a smokestack of one of the site's fossil-fueled units was damaged. However, the containment buildings at the plant were unaffected. The Southland Mall, then known as the Cutler Ridge Mall, suffered severe water and wind damage during Andrew. Further north in Miami Beach, no major damage was reported. However, a hotel was submerged with 2 to 3 feet (0.61 to 0.91 m) of water in its lobby. At the Miami International Airport, a Florida West Boeing jet was pushed through a fence by high winds. Nearby, a Hampton Inn Hotel lost its roof. Throughout Miami-Dade County, police counted more than 50 roads blocked by downed trees and powerlines. Despite street flooding, broken windows, and downed trees, skyscrapers in downtown Miami suffered minimal damage due to tougher building codes. In Miami-Dade County alone, damage was estimated at $25 billion (1992 USD) and 40 fatalities were reported.
Broward and Palm Beach Counties 
High winds from Andrew spread northward into Broward County, but no reports of hurricane force winds exist. At the Fort Lauderdale – Hollywood International Airport, wind gusts reached 61 mph (98 km/h), while the Goodyear Blimp Base in Pompano Beach reported gusts of at least 90 mph (150 km/h). In rural Broward County, a weather station reported sustained winds of 53 mph (85 km/h). In the counties to the north, moderate rainfall was reported; two weather stations in Broward County recorded precipitation amounts reaching 7.79 inches (198 mm) and 5.14 inches (131 mm). Overall, Andrew caused at least $100 million (1992 USD) in damage and three fatalities occurred in Broward County.
Waves along the coastline resulted in minor beach erosion in Palm Beach County. At the furthest extent, tropical storm force winds were reported as far north as the Palm Beach International Airport, where sustained wind speeds of 49 mph (79 km/h) were reported. At a rural area in the central portions of the county, winds were very light and did not exceed 20 mph (32 km/h). In addition, an anemometer in Atlantis recorded sustained winds of 25 mph (35 km/h). Rainfall in Palm Beach County was light, reaching 5.12 inches (130 mm) near the Palm Beach/Broward County line. No significant damage or fatalities were reported in that county.
Monroe County 
On the Florida Keys, light rainfall occurred, especially in the Lower Keys, where 2.02 inches (51 mm) was reported on Cudjoe Key. No significant floods occurred, although some areas experience localized flooding. High winds in the Florida Keys were limited to the Upper Keys, especially on Key Largo, where a 13-minute sustained wind speed of 114 mph (183 km/h) was recorded. No other reports of hurricane or tropical storm force winds exist in the Florida Keys, though the Key West International Airport and the Monroe County Emergency Operations Center reported tropical storm force wind gusts of 44 mph (74 km/h) and 45 mph (75 km/h), respectively. Other locations in the Florida Keys reported much lesser wind speeds. On Key Largo, approximately 1,500 homes were damaged, with at least 300 of those becoming uninhabitable. The storm also damaged billboards, awnings, and commercial signs. Several boats, planes, and trees were affected by Andrew on the northern side of Key Largo. On the Card Sound Bridge, which connects Key Largo to the mainland of Florida, the toll booth was completely destroyed. By three days after the storm, electricity was restored for areas south of the Seven Mile Bridge. In addition, one indirect fatality occurred in Monroe County when a fireman in the Upper Keys was injured, and died by August 30. Overall, it is estimated that buildings and houses suffered $120 million (1992 USD) in losses, while $11 million (1992 USD) in damage was incurred to the fishing and marine industries.
Due to the sparsely populated mainland area of Monroe County, no observations of wind speeds occurred. In the northern half of Monroe County, light rainfall was reported, as only a few areas experienced more than 3 inches (76 mm) of precipitation. It is unknown if any property damage occurred in that portion of Monroe County. Andrew caused significant damage to vegetation in Everglades National Park. In both Everglades National Park and Biscayne National Park, over 25% or 70,000 acres (280 km2) of trees were felled or severely damage. One-fourth of the royal palms and one-third of the pine trees in Everglades National Park were either significantly damage or destroyed. In addition, waves up to 5 feet (1.5 m) were reported in Flamingo, which is near Cape Sable.
West Coast of Florida 
Relatively small tides were also reported on the west coast of Florida, with at least 6 feet (1.8 m) seas were recorded in Goodland. Light amounts of precipitation were observed on the west coast of Florida, with Marco Island and Everglades Park reporting 3.5 inches (89 mm) and 4.5 inches (110 mm), respectively. In Everglades City, Marco Island, and Naples, winds gusting to 100 mph (155 km/h) caused considerable affects to houses and buildings; damage was mainly from uprooted trees and de-roofed homes. In Collier County, damage totaled to $30 million (1992 USD). In the counties north of Collier County, winds and rain along the state's west coast were light, resulting in minimal damage. In Lee County, trees were uprooted and some houses suffered roof damage, though losses were fairly minor. Along the west coast of Florida, the hurricane produced a storm tide of 2 ft (0.61 m) at Fort Myers Beach. Winds reached 72 mph (116 km/h) in Captiva. Precipitation was light, reaching .58 inches (15 mm), though rainfall may have exceeded 1 inch (25 mm) in the extreme southern portion of Lee County. Abnormally high tides were observed as far north as Homosassa in Citrus County, which reported a storm surge of at least 1 foot (0.30 m) in height.
At the Miccosukee Indian Reservation, the huts and trailers of the Miccosukee were severely damaged. Well to the north of Andrew's path, less than 3 inches (76 mm) of rain was reported in Glades County. At the emergency operations center in that county, a wind gust to 51 mph (82 km/h) was recorded. Twelve funnel clouds were reported in Highlands County, though they remained unconfirmed. In Martin County, which is to the east of Lake Okeechobee, slightly higher amounts of rainfall was recorded, though it was less than 5 inches (130 mm). In the southern portion of Lake Okeechobee, precipitation was in excess of 5 inches (130 mm). However, to the southwest of Lake Okeechobee in Hendry County, rainfall was no more than 3 inches (76 mm).
Affects from the storm in Central Florida was limited to light rainfall and winds in a few counties. Four locations in Brevard County reported abnormal conditions, though winds were no more than 25 mph (40 km/h) at any of the locations. In Titusville, 0.80 inches (20 mm) of precipitation was recorded.
Shortly after conditions from Hurricane Andrew subsided, then-President of the United States George H. W. Bush assessed damage in the Miami area with then-Governor of Florida Lawton Chiles. Bush quickly declared the region a disaster area, which provided public assistance to victims of the storm  in Broward, Collier, Miami-Dade, and Monroe Counties. In addition, Lieutenant Governor Buddy MacKay flew over the impact area, and noted that "it looks like a war zone". On September 11, 1992, then-Governor Lawton Chiles considered asking the Florida State Legislature to raise taxes, citing that "No matter how much Congress appropriates to repair damage from Hurricane Andrew, the state will face a substantial clean bill". In Washington D.C., President George H. W. Bush proposed a $7.1 billion (1992 USD) disaster aid package to provide disaster benefits, small-business loans, crop losses, food stamps, and public housing for victims of Hurricane Andrew. However, the United States House of Representatives considered allotting $8.8 billion in the disaster bill.
Two days after Hurricane Andrew, state officials established a temporary relief center at the South Florida Fairgrounds near West Palm Beach. While in operation, more than 20,000 volunteers moved about 4,500 tons of supplies  unto more than 1,200 trucks for distribution to the victims of the storm. By September 27, the relief distribution center at the South Florida Fairgrounds closed. In addition, the Boy Scouts of America also assisted in the aftermath of Hurricane Andrew. In Glennville, Georgia, a Boy Scout troop and two Cub Scout packs filled a 48 feet (15 m) truck with food after collecting door-to-door. Similarly, another Cub Scout pack in North Palm Beach, Florida packed a truck full of emergency supplies. Within the first few months following the storm, 2,200 traffic lights were repaired, 150,000 street signs were replaced, and more than 40,000 trees were planted. By October 1993, approximately 20 million cubic yards of debris were disposed of, while nearly 3,000 miles (4,800 km) of roadway was cleared.
Initially, crime rates in Miami-Dade County increased by 50% after Andrew, mostly due to looting. There were numerous reports of people stealing merchandise from damaged or destroyed stores as well as at severely damaged neighborhoods. As a result, gun sales had soared and residents posted warning signs with messages such as: "You loot, we shoot. You try, you die". On CNN, footage was aired of looters stealing armloads of merchandise at a shopping center. In Kendall, the owner of a pizza restaurant stood outside with a sawed-off shotgun. However, looting quickly ceased after the United States Army arrived. Although looting arrests were nearly non-existent by early September, a police sergeant noted that at least 15 looting incidents at private houses were reported per night. After being deployed to Miami-Dade County, the military personnel set-up five tent cities in Homestead and Florida City, which had the capacity of 3,800 people. By September 4, 1992, only 150 families took refugee there. However, just days later, the tent cities abruptly filled up, after officials closed school shelters, which were re-opening for the 1992-1993 school year. As a result, military officials opened another tent city at the Miccosukee Indian Reservation. Instead of continuing to live in Miami-Dade County, more than 100,000 residents moved northward; this significantly altered the area's racial demographics. In the decade after the storm, Hurricane Andrew may have contributed to the massive and sudden housing boom in Broward County. Located just north of Miami-Dade County, residents who had lost their homes migrated to western sections of the county that was just starting to be developed. The result was record growth in places like Miramar, Pembroke Pines and Weston.
Although recovery efforts were extensive, they were initially slow, especially the assistance from government branches. The slow response of federal aid to storm victims in southern Florida led Dade County Emergency Management Director Kate Hale to famously exclaim at a nationally televised news conference, "Where in the hell is the cavalry on this one? They keep saying we're going to get supplies. For God's sake, where are they?" Almost immediately, President George H. W. Bush promised, "Help is on the way," and mobile kitchens and tents, along with units from the 82nd Airborne Division and the 10th Mountain Division, Fort Drum, New York began pouring in. More than 600,000 insurance claims were filed after the storm, which caused 11 insurance companies to go bankrupt and 30 others lost at least 20 percent of their surpluses. As a result, about 930,000 policyholders were left with no insurance coverage. This led the Florida Legislature to create new entities, such as the Joint Underwriting Association, the Florida Windstorm Underwriting Association, and the Florida Hurricane Catastrophe Fund, in effort to restore adequate insurance capacity.
The attempt to rebuild Homestead led Grand Prix of Miami promoter Ralph Sanchez, who organised IMSA GT Championship, CART PPG Cup, and AMA Superbike races at three different venues in Miami -- Bayfront Park, Bicentennial, and Tamiami Park since 1983—to build the permanent circuit he had envisioned near the devastated area in Homestead, Metro-Dade Homestead Motorsports Complex, which broke ground in August 1994, opening in 1995. While Sanchez no longer promotes the races, NASCAR's three national series, Grand-Am, and AMA Superbike all hold races at the multipurpose circuit.
See also 
- Harold Gerrish (August 23, 1992). "Hurricane Andrew Special Advisory Number 27". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved March 23, 2012.
- Edward Rappaport, Harold Gerrish, and Richard Pasch (August 24, 1992). "Hurricane Andrew Advisory Number 31". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved March 23, 2012.
- Ed Rappaport (December 10, 1993). "Hurricane Andrew Preliminary Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved November 23, 2011.
- "Hurricane Andrew Assessment - Florida". Post, Buckley, Schuh & Jernigan, Inc. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. January 1993. pp. 43 and 44. Retrieved February 4, 2012.
- Dennis Henize (August 30, 1992). "Post Storm Report". National Weather Service Key West, Florida. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-11-23.
- Lee County Department of Public Services. "Hurricane Andrew Fact Sheet" (GIF). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved March 14, 2012.
- "Hurricane Andrew Fact Sheet - Collier County, Florida". National Hurricane Center. October 30, 1992. Retrieved March 14, 2012.
- Balfour (August 26, 1992). "Hurricane Andrew Preliminary Report". National Weather Service Ruskin, Florida. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
- "Storm: Andrew could be strongest". Detroit Free Press. August 26, 1992. Retrieved March 13, 2012.
- "Andrew aims for Gulf Coast (Page 2)". Mesa Tribune. August 25, 1992. Retrieved December 3, 2011.
- "Hurricane Facts". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. September 29, 1994. Retrieved February 7, 2012.
- John Dorschner (1992-08-30). "The hurricane that changed everything". Miami Herald. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- Michael Koziara (1992-09-10). "Hurricane Andrew Damage Assessment (3)" (GIF). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-11-23.
- David Roth (May 2, 2007). "Hurricane Andrew - August 23-28, 1992". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Retrieved December 25, 2011.
- Craig Pittman (August 18, 2002). "Storm's howl fills the ears of survivors". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved March 13, 2012.
- William Booth and Mary Jordan (August 25, 1992). "At Least 10 Killed; City Under Curfew (Page 1)". The Washington Post. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
- "NRC Information Notice 93-53: Effect of Hurricane Andrew on Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station and Lessons Learned". NRC.gov. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. July 20, 1993. Retrieved March 13, 2012.
- "NRC Information Notice 93-53, Supplement 1: Effect of Hurricane Andrew on Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station and Lessons Learned". NRC.gov. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. April 29, 1994. Retrieved March 13, 2012.
- "Debartolo Rebuilding Damaged Fla. Mall". The Vindicator. August 31, 1992. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
- Associated Press (August 24, 1992). "Andrew hits with horrific vengeance (Page 2)". The News-Sentinel. Retrieved December 25, 2011.
- Mark Silva, Charles Strouse, and John Donnelly (August 25, 1992). "Floridians mop up; Gulf Coast is next (Page 2)". Knight Ridder. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
- Christopher Sullivan (August 24, 1992). "Havoc in Florida". Associated Press. p. 2. Retrieved March 13, 2012.
- "Post Storm Hurricane Report". National Weather Service West Palm Beach, Florida. National Hurricane Center. September 9, 1992. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- "Map of selected observations in Dade county". National Hurricane Center. 1993. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
- Dan Keating and Nancy Klingener (1992-08-27). "Keys are islands in every sense after Andrew". Miami Herald. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- John K. Lovelace and Benjamin F. McPherson (June 24, 1998). "Effects of Hurricane Andrew (1992) on Wetlands in Southern Florida and Louisiana". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
- Christopher Sullivan (August 24, 1992). "Havoc in Florida". Associated Press. National Hurricane Center. p. 3. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
- Lee County Department of Public Services Division of Public Safety Emergency Management and Lee County Port Authority (1992). "Hurricane Andrew Fact Sheet - Lee County, Florida". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Michael Fleeman (September 8, 1992). "After Andrew Hurricane Victims Fill Tent Cities". Associated Press. The Free Lance–Star. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
- United States Department of Homeland Security (October 18, 2004). "Major Disaster Declared August 24, 1992 (DR-955)". Federal Emergency Management Agency. Retrieved December 25, 2011.
- "Andrew picks up speed as it races across gulf". Detroit Free Press. August 27, 1992. Retrieved December 25, 2011.
- Alan Judd (September 12, 1992). "Chiles hints at future tax hike". New York Times. Gainesville Sun. Retrieved November 28, 2011.
- Eliot Kleinberg (August 24, 2010). "Hurricane Andrew struck 18 years ago today". Palm Beach Post. Retrieved November 28, 2011.
- Associated Press (September 19, 1992). "Items not quite fitting disaster needs being sent to Hurricane Andrew victims". Harlan Daily Enterprise. Retrieved November 28, 2011.
- "Hurricane Andrew update". Boy Scouts of America. Scouting Magazine. January 1993. p. 6. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
- David Godschalk, Timothy Beatley, Philip Berke, David Brower, and Edward Kaiser (1999). Natural hazard mitigation: recasting disaster policy and planning. Island Press. p. 114. ISBN 1-55963-602-5. Retrieved February 7, 2012.
- Chris Collura. "Interesting facts about Hurricane Andrew". Sky-Chaser.com. Retrieved March 14, 2012.
- Dan Fesperman (September 3, 1992). "Andrew's little wonder: No looters are dead yet". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved March 14, 2012.
- "Only 300 People Go To Tent Cities". Associated Press. Eugene Register-Guard. September 4, 1992. Retrieved March 14, 2012.
- Bill Adair (August 20, 2002). "10 years ago, her angry plea got hurricane aid moving". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
- Adrian Sainz (August 24, 2002). "Ten years after Hurricane Andrew, effects are still felt". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Associated Press. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
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