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e-UTRA is the air interface of 3GPP's Long Term Evolution (LTE) upgrade path for mobile networks. It is the abbreviation for evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access, also referred to as the 3GPP work item on the Long Term Evolution (LTE) also known as the Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) in early drafts of the 3GPP LTE specification.
It is a radio access network standard meant to be a replacement of the UMTS, HSDPA and HSUPA technologies specified in 3GPP releases 5 and beyond. Unlike HSPA, LTE's E-UTRA is an entirely new air interface system, unrelated to and incompatible with W-CDMA. It provides higher data rates, lower latency and is optimized for packet data. It uses OFDMA radio-access for the downlink and SC-FDMA on the uplink. Trials started in 2008.
EUTRAN has the following features:
- Peak download rates of 299.6 Mbit/s for 4x4 antennas, and 150.8 Mbit/s for 2x2 antennas with 20 MHz of spectrum. LTE Advanced supports 8x8 antenna configurations with peak download rates of 2998.6 Mbit/s in an aggregated 100 MHz channel.
- Peak upload rates of 75.4 Mbit/s for a 20 MHz channel in the LTE standard, with up to 1497.8 Mbit/s in an LTE Advanced 100 MHz carrier.
- Low data transfer latencies (sub-5ms latency for small IP packets in optimal conditions), lower latencies for handover and connection setup time.
- Support for terminals moving at up to 350 km/h or 500 km/h depending on the frequency band.
- Support for both FDD and TDD duplexes as well as half-duplex FDD with the same radio access technology
- Support for all frequency bands currently used by IMT systems by ITU-R.
- Flexible bandwidth: 1.4 MHz, 3 MHz, 5 MHz, 15 MHz and 20 MHz are standardized. By comparison, W-CDMA uses fixed size 5 MHz chunks of spectrum.
- Increased spectral efficiency at 2-5 times more than in 3GPP (HSPA) release 6
- Support of cell sizes from tens of meters of radius (femto and picocells) up to over 100 km radius macrocells
- Simplified architecture: The network side of EUTRAN is composed only by the enodeBs
- Support for inter-operation with other systems (e.g. GSM/EDGE, UMTS, CDMA2000, WiMAX...)
- Packet switched radio interface.
Rationale for E-UTRA 
Although UMTS, with HSDPA and HSUPA and their evolution, deliver high data transfer rates, wireless data usage is expected to continue increasing significantly over the next years due to the increased offering and demand of services and content on-the-move and the continued reduction of costs for the final user. This increase is expected to require not only faster networks and radio interfaces but also higher cost-efficiency than what is possible by the evolution of the current standards. Thus the 3GPP consortium set the requirements for a new radio interface (EUTRAN) and core network evolution (System Architecture Evolution SAE) that would fulfill this need.
This improvements in performance allow wireless operators to offer quadruple play services - voice, high-speed interactive applications including large data transfer and feature-rich IPTV with full mobility.
Starting with the 3GPP Release 8, e-UTRA is designed to provide a single evolution path for the GSM/EDGE, UMTS/HSPA, CDMA2000/EV-DO and TD-SCDMA radio interfaces, providing increases in data speeds, and spectral efficiency, and allowing the provision of more functionality.
EUTRAN consists only of enodeBs on the network side. The enodeB performs tasks similar to those performed by the nodeBs and RNC (radio network controller) together in UTRAN. The aim of this simplification is to reduce the latency of all radio interface operations. eNodeBs are connected to each other via the X2 interface, and they connect to the packet switched (PS) core network via the S1 interface.
EUTRAN protocol stack 
- Physical layer: Carries all information from the MAC transport channels over the air interface. Takes care of the link adaptation (AMC), power control, cell search (for initial synchronization and handover purposes) and other measurements (inside the LTE system and between systems) for the RRC layer.
- MAC: The MAC sublayer offers a set of logical channels to the RLC sublayer that it multiplexes into the physical layer transport channels. It also manages the HARQ error correction, handles the prioritization of the logical channels for the same UE and the dynamic scheduling between UEs, etc..
- RLC: It transports the PDCP's PDUs. It can work in 3 different modes depending on the reliability provided. Depending on this mode it can provide: ARQ error correction, segmentation/concatenation of PDUs, reordering for in-sequence delivery, duplicate detection, etc...
- PDCP: For the RRC layer it provides transport of its data with ciphering and integrity protection. And for the IP layer transport of the IP packets, with ROHC header compression, ciphering, and depending on the RLC mode in-sequence delivery, duplicate detection and retransmission of its own SDUs during handover.
- RRC: Between others it takes care of: the broadcasted system information related to the access stratum and transport of the non-access stratum (NAS) messages, paging, establishment and release of the RRC connection, security key management, handover, UE measurements related to inter-system (inter-RAT) mobibility, QoS, etc..
Interfacing layers to the EUTRAN protocol stack:
- NAS: Protocol between the UE and the MME on the network side (outside of EUTRAN). Between others performs authentication of the UE, security control and generates part of the paging messages.
Physical layer (L1) design 
E-UTRA uses orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna technology depending on the terminal category and can use as well beamforming for the downlink to support more users, higher data rates and lower processing power required on each handset.
In the uplink LTE uses both OFDMA and a precoded version of OFDM called Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) depending on the channel. This is to compensate for a drawback with normal OFDM, which has a very high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). High PAPR requires more expensive and inefficient power amplifiers with high requirements on linearity, which increases the cost of the terminal and drains the battery faster. For the uplink, in release 8 and 9 multi user MIMO / Spatial division multiple access (SDMA) is supported; release 10 introduces also SU-MIMO.
In both OFDM and SCFDMA transmission modes a cyclic prefix is appended to the transmitted symbols. Two different lengths of the cyclic prefix are available to support different channel spreads due to the cell size and propagation environment. These are a normal cyclic prefix of 4.7µs, and an extended cyclic prefix of 16.6µs.
LTE supports both Frequency-division duplex (FDD) and Time-division duplex (TDD) modes. While FDD makes use of paired spectra for UL and DL transmission separated by a duplex frequency gap, TDD uses the same frequency carrier to, alternatively in time, transmit data from the base station to the terminal and viceversa. Both modes have their own frame structure within LTE and these are aligned with each other meaning that similar hardware can be used in the base stations and terminals to allow for economy of scale. The TDD mode in LTE is aligned with TD-SCDMA as well allowing for coexistence.
The LTE transmission is structured in the time domain in radio frames. Each of these radio frames is 10 ms long and consists of 10 sub frames of 1 ms each. For non-MBMS subframes the OFDM subcarrier spacing in the frequency domain is 15 kHz. Twelve of these subcarriers together are called a resource block. A LTE terminal can be allocated in the downlink or uplink a minimum of 1 resource block during 1 subframe.
All L1 transport data is encoded using turbo coding and a contention-free quadratic permutation polynomial (QPP) turbo code internal interleaver. L1 HARQ with 8 (FDD) or up to 15 (TDD) processes is used for the downlink and up to 8 processes for the UL
EUTRAN physical channels and signals 
In the downlink there are several physical channels:
- The Physical Control Channel (PDCCH) carries between others the downlink allocation information, uplink allocation grants for the terminal.
- The Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH) used to signal the length of the PDCCH.
- The Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH) used to carry the acknowledges from the uplink transmissions.
- The Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) is used for L1 transport data transmission. Supported modulation formats on the PDSCH are QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM.
- The Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH) is used for broadcast transmission using a Single Frequency Network
- The Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH) is used to broadcast the basic system information within the cell
And the following signals:
- The synchronization signals (PSS and SSS) are meant for the UE to discover the LTE cell and do the initial synchronization.
- The reference signals (cell specific, MBSFN, and UE specific) are used by the UE to estimate the DL channel.
- Positioning reference signals (PRS), added in release 9, meant to be used by the UE for OTDOA positioning (a type of multilateration)
In the uplink there are three physical channels:
- Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) is used for initial access and when the UE losses its uplink synchronization,
- Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) carries the L1 UL transport data together with control information. Supported modulation formats on the PUSCH are QPSK, 16QAM and depending on the user equipment category 64QAM. PUSCH is the only channel, which because of its greater BW, uses SC-FDMA
- Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH) carries control information. Note that the Uplink control information consists only on DL acknowledges as well as CQI related reports as all the UL coding and allocation parameters are known by the network side and signaled to the UE in the PDCCH.
And the following signals:
- Reference signals (RS) used by the enodeB to estimate the uplink channel to decode the terminal uplink transmission.
- Sounding reference signals (SRS) used by the enodeB to estimate the uplink channel conditions for each user to decide the best uplink scheduling.
User Equipment (UE) categories 
3GPP Release 8 defines five LTE user equipment categories depending on maximum peak data rate and MIMO capabilities support. With 3GPP Release 10, which is referred to as LTE Advanced, three new categories have been introduced.
|3GPP Release||User Equipment Category||Maximum L1 datarate Downlink||Maximum number of DL MIMO layers||Maximum L1 datarate Uplink|
|Release 8||Category 1||10.3 Mbit/s||1||5.2 Mbit/s|
|Release 8||Category 2||51.0 Mbit/s||2||25.5 Mbit/s|
|Release 8||Category 3||102.0 Mbit/s||2||51.0 Mbit/s|
|Release 8||Category 4||150.8 Mbit/s||2||51.0 Mbit/s|
|Release 8||Category 5||299.6 Mbit/s||4||75.4 Mbit/s|
|Release 10||Category 6||301.5 Mbit/s||2 or 4||51.0 Mbit/s|
|Release 10||Category 7||301.5 Mbit/s||2 or 4||102.0 Mbit/s|
|Release 10||Category 8||2998.6 Mbit/s||8||1497.8 Mbit/s|
Note: These are L1 transport data rates not including the different protocol layers overhead. Depending on cell BW, cell load, network configuration, the performance of the UE used, propagation conditions, etc. practical data rates will vary.
Note: The 3.0 Gbit/s / 1.5 Gbit/s data rate specified as Category 8 is near the peak aggregate data rate for a base station sector. A more realistic maximum data rate for a single user is 1.2 Gbit/s (downlink) and 600 Mbit/s (uplink). Nokia Siemens Networks has demonstrated downlink speeds of 1.4 Gbit/s using 100 MHz of aggregated spectrum.
EUTRAN releases 
As the rest of the 3GPP standard parts E-UTRA is structured in releases.
- Release 8, frozen in 2008, specified the first LTE standard
- Release 9, frozen in 2009, included some additions to the physical layer like dual layer (MIMO) beamforming transmission or positioning support
- Release 10, frozen in 2011, introduces to the standard several LTE Advanced features like carrier aggregation, uplink SU-MIMO or relays, aiming to a considerable L1 peak data rate increase.
All LTE releases have been designed so far keeping backward compatibility in mind. That is, a release 8 compliant terminal will work in a release 10 network, while release 10 terminals would be able to use its extra functionality.
Frequency bands and channel bandwidths 
From Tables 5.5-1 "E-UTRA Operating Bands" and 5.6.1-1 "E-UTRA Channel Bandwidth" of 3GPP TS 36.101, the following table lists the specified frequency bands of LTE and the channel bandwidths each listed band supports:
|E-UTRA Operating Band||Uplink (UL)
|Common Name||Appr. Center Frequency||Region(s)|
|1||1920 MHz to 1980 MHz||2110 MHz to 2170 MHz||FDD||5, 10, 15, 20||IMT||2100 MHz||Asia, Europe, Israel, Japan (NTT docomo, KDDI, SoftBank), South Korea (LG U Plus), Philippines (Smart)|
|2||1850 MHz to 1910 MHz||1930 MHz to 1990 MHz||FDD||1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20||PCS||1900 MHz||Canada, Latin America, US|
|3||1710 MHz to 1785 MHz||1805 MHz to 1880 MHz||FDD||1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20||DCS||1800 MHz||United Kingdom (EE), Finland, Germany, Australia, Hong Kong, Japan (E MOBILE), Poland, South Africa,  Singapore, South Korea, Kazakhstan, New Zealand,Sri Lanka|
|4||1710 MHz to 1755 MHz||2110 MHz to 2155 MHz||FDD||1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20||AWS||1700 MHz||Canada, Latin America, US (AT&T Mobility, Big River Broadband, T-Mobile USA, Verizon Wireless, MetroPCS)|
|5||824 MHz to 849 MHz||869 MHz to 894 MHz||FDD||1.4, 3, 5, 10||CLR||850 MHz||Americas, South Korea (LG U Plus nationwide, SKT), Israel|
|6||830 MHz to 840 MHz||875 MHz to 885 MHz||FDD||5, 10||UMTS 800||850 MHz|
|7||2500 MHz to 2570 MHz||2620 MHz to 2690 MHz||FDD||5, 10, 15, 20||IMT-E||2600 MHz||Australia (Telstra and Optus from late 2014), Canada, EU, Latin America, Singapore, Brazil, Hong Kong, Russian Federation, Malaysia |
|8||880 MHz to 915 MHz||925 MHz to 960 MHz||FDD||1.4, 3, 5, 10||GSM||900 MHz||EU, Australia (Telstra), Latin America, Japan (SoftBank from 2014)|
|9||1749.9 MHz to 1784.9 MHz||1844.9 MHz to 1879.9 MHz||FDD||5, 10, 15, 20||UMTS 1800||1800 MHz|
|10||1710 MHz to 1770 MHz||2110 MHz to 2170 MHz||FDD||5, 10, 15, 20||Extended AWS
(superset of band 4)
|1700 MHz||Ecuador, Peru, Uruguay|
|11||1427.9 MHz to 1447.9 MHz||1475.9 MHz to 1495.9 MHz||FDD||5, 10||PDC||1500 MHz||Japan (KDDI)|
|12||699 MHz to 716 MHz||729 MHz to 746 MHz||FDD||1.4, 3, 5, 10||lower SMH blocks A/B/C||700 MHz||US (C Spire and U.S. Cellular)|
|13||777 MHz to 787 MHz||746 MHz to 756 MHz||FDD||5, 10||upper SMH block C||750 MHz||US (Verizon Wireless)|
|14||788 MHz to 798 MHz||758 MHz to 768 MHz||FDD||5, 10||upper SMH block D||750 MHz||US (no licenses sold by FCC)|
|17||704 MHz to 716 MHz||734 MHz to 746 MHz||FDD||5, 10||lower SMH blocks B/C
(subset of band 12)
|700 MHz||US (AT&T Mobility)|
|18||815 MHz to 830 MHz||860 MHz to 875 MHz||FDD||5, 10, 15||Japan lower 800||850 MHz||Japan (KDDI)|
|19||830 MHz to 845 MHz||875 MHz to 890 MHz||FDD||5, 10, 15||Japan upper 800||850 MHz||Japan (NTT docomo)|
|20||832 MHz to 862 MHz||791 MHz to 821 MHz||FDD||5, 10, 15, 20||EU's Digital Dividend||800 MHz||EU, Russian Federation|
|21||1447.9 MHz to 1462.9 MHz||1495.9 MHz to 1510.9 MHz||FDD||5, 10, 15||PDC||1500 MHz||Japan (NTT docomo)|
|22||3410 MHz to 3490 MHz||3510 MHz to 3590 MHz||FDD||5, 10, 15, 20||3500 MHz|
|23||2000 MHz to 2020 MHz||2180 MHz to 2200 MHz||FDD||1.4, 3, 5, 10||S-Band (a/k/a AWS-4)||2000 MHz||US (Dish Network)|
|24||1626.5 MHz to 1660.5 MHz||1525 MHz to 1559 MHz||FDD||5, 10||L-Band||1600 MHz||US (LightSquared)|
|25||1850 MHz to 1915 MHz||1930 MHz to 1995 MHz||FDD||1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20||Extended PCS
(superset of band 2)
|1900 MHz||US (Sprint)|
|26||814 MHz to 849 MHz||859 MHz to 894 MHz||FDD||1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15||ESMR + CLR
(includes bands 5, 6, 18 and 19)
|850 MHz||US (Sprint)|
|27||806 MHz to 824 MHz||851 MHz to 869 MHz||FDD||1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15||ESMR||850 MHz|
|28||703 MHz to 748 MHz||758 MHz to 803 MHz||FDD||5, 10, 15, 20||APAC 700||750 MHz||Australia (Optus, Telstra from 2015), New Zealand, Japan (NTT docomo, KDDI, E MOBILE from 2015), Mexico, Uruguay, Brazil (from 2016), Chile|
1850 MHz to 1910 MHz|
1710 MHz to 1755 MHz
|716 MHz to 728 MHz||FDD||5, 10||lower SMH blocks D/E||700 MHz||US (AT&T Mobility carrier aggregation with uplink in bands 2 or 4)|
|unnumbered||2305 MHz to 2315 MHz||2350 MHz to 2360 MHz||FDD||5, 10||WCS blocks A/B||2300 MHz||US (AT&T Mobility)|
|33||1900 MHz to 1920 MHz||TDD||5, 10, 15, 20||EU|
|34||2010 MHz to 2025 MHz||TDD||5, 10, 15||EU|
|35||1850 MHz to 1910 MHz||TDD||1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20||PCS uplink|
|36||1930 MHz to 1990 MHz||TDD||1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20||PCS downlink|
|37||1910 MHz to 1930 MHz||TDD||5, 10, 15, 20||PCS guardband|
|38||2570 MHz to 2620 MHz||TDD||5, 10, 15, 20||EU, Russian Federation|
|39||1880 MHz to 1920 MHz||TDD||5, 10, 15, 20||China|
|40||2300 MHz to 2400 MHz||TDD||5, 10, 15, 20||Australia, China, India, South Africa (Telkom Mobile)|
|41||2496 MHz to 2690 MHz||TDD||5, 10, 15, 20||BRS/EBS||US (Clearwire), Japan (Wireless City Planning)|
|42||3400 MHz to 3600 MHz||TDD||5, 10, 15, 20|
|43||3600 MHz to 3800 MHz||TDD||5, 10, 15, 20|
|44||703 MHz to 803 MHz||TDD||5, 10, 15, 20||APAC 700|
Technology demos 
- In September 2007, NTT Docomo demonstrated e-UTRA data rates of 200 Mbit/s with power consumption below 100 mW during the test.
- In April 2008, LG and Nortel demonstrated e-UTRA data rates of 50 Mbit/s while travelling at 110 km/h.
See also 
- Fourth Generation Networks (IMT-Advanced)
- List of device bit rates
- List of LTE networks
- LTE (telecommunication) (3GPP Long Term Evolution)
- LTE Advanced (next version of LTE)
- System Architecture Evolution (SAE)
- UMTS, UMTS-TDD, WiMAX
- UMTS frequency bands
- 3GPP UMTS Long Term Evolution page
- 3GPP TS 36.306 E-UTRA User Equipment radio access capabilities
- 3GPP TS 36.300 E-UTRA Overall description
- 3GPP TS 36.201 E-UTRA: LTE physical layer; General description
- 3GPP TS 36.321 E-UTRA: Access Control (MAC) protocol specification
- 3GPP TS 36.322 E-UTRA: Radio Link Control (RLC) protocol specification
- 3GPP TS 36.323 E-UTRA: Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification
- 3GPP TS 36.331 E-UTRA: Radio Resource Control (RRC) protocol specification
- 3GPP TS 24.301 Non-Access-Stratum (NAS) protocol for Evolved Packet System (EPS); Stage 3
- 3GPP TS 36.212 E-UTRA Multiplexing and channel coding
- 3GPP TS 36.211 E-UTRA Physical channels and modulation
- Nomor Research Newsletter: LTE Random Access Channel
- 3GPP LTE / LTE-A Standardization: Status and Overview of Technologie, slide 16
- 4G speed record smashed with 1.4 Gigabits-per-second mobile call #MWC12
- 3GPP TS 36.101 E-UTRA: User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception
- Reuters UK
-  NGNM on DT LTE deployment
- Wireless Federation
- OFTA 1800 MHz Auction
- Pilot 4G network to be launched in Astana and Almaty by December 20
- Bell getting ready to launch 2,600 LTE spectrum, speeds will "double what's currently available" | MobileSyrup.com
- Decisions on the Transition to Broadband Radio Service (BRS) in the Band 2500-2690 MHz and Consultation on Changes Related to the Band Plan - Spectrum Management and Telecommu...
- IntoMobile "Japan Opening up New Spectrum for LTE..."
- LatAm joins Asia-Pacific in standardising LTE on 700MHz
- New Band LTE Downlink FDD 716-728 MHz
- LTE in the US Wireless Communications Service (WCS) Band
- NTT DoCoMo develops low power chip for 3G LTE handsets
- Nortel and LG Electronics Demo LTE at CTIA and with High Vehicle Speeds :: Wireless-Watch Community (Access through web.archive.org)
- "Skyworks Rolls Out Front-End Module for 3.9G Wireless Applications. (Skyworks Solutions Inc.)" (free registration required). Wireless News. February 14, 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-14.
- "Wireless News Briefs - February 15, 2008". WirelessWeek. February 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-14.
- "Skyworks Introduces Industry's First Front-End Module for 3.9G Wireless Applications.". Skyworks press release (Free with registration). 11 FEB 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-14.
- 3GPP Long Term Evolution page
- LTE 3GPP Encyclopedia
- 3G Americas - UMTS/HSPA Speeds Up the Wireless Technology Roadmap. 3G Americas Publishes White Paper on 3GPP Release 7 to Release 8. Bellevue, WA, July 10, 2007