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Music video by Rihanna performing Rehab. YouTube view counts pre-VEVO: 19591123. (C) 2007 The Island Def Jam Music Group.
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A substitute teacher from the inner city refuses to be messed with while taking attendance.
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During the 1980s it was becoming apparent that the world's motion picture heritage was in danger. Not only was the preservation of nitrate film an ongoing problem, but safety film was beginning to be affected by 'vinegar syndrome' and color film manufactured, in particular, by Eastman Kodak, was found to be at risk of fading. At the time, the best solution was to duplicate nitrate film onto a more secure medium.
The term ‘digital cinema’ highlights the use of digital technology to transfer from 35mm film to digital carriers. When it comes to digital technology there is a heated debate. The film preservation, or film restoration, movement is an ongoing project among film historians, archivists, museums, cinematheques, and non-profit organizations to rescue decaying film stock and preserve the images which they contain. In the widest sense, preservation nowadays assures that a movie will continue to exist, as close to its original form as possible. 90 percent of all American silent films and 50 percent of American sound films made before 1950 are lost films.
For many years the term “preservation” used to be a synonym of “duplication” only. The preservationist’s goal was to create a durable copy without significant loss of quality. Film preservation now holds the concepts of handling, duplication, storage, and access. The archivist seeks to protect the film and share the content with the public.
Film preservation should be distinguished from film revisionism, in which long-completed films are subjected to outtakes never previously seen being inserted, new music scores and/or sound effects being added, black-and-white film being colorized or converted to Dolby stereo, or minor edits or other cosmetic changes being made.
Film decay 
The great majority of films made in the silent era have been lost forever. Movies of the first half of the 20th century were filmed on an unstable, highly flammable cellulose nitrate film base, which required careful storage to slow its inevitable process of decomposition over time. Most films made on nitrate stock were not preserved; over the years, their negatives and prints simply crumbled into dust. Many of them were recycled for their silver content, or destroyed in studio or vault fires. But the largest cause was intentional destruction. As film preservationist Robert A. Harris has said,
Most of the early films did not survive because of wholesale junking by the studios. There was no thought of ever saving these films. They simply needed vault space and the materials were expensive to house.
Silent films had little or no commercial value after the silent era ended in 1930, so they were not kept. As a result, preserving the now rare silent films has been a high priority amongst film historians.
Because of the fragility of film stock, proper preservation of film usually involves storing the original negatives (when they have survived) and prints in climate-controlled facilities. The vast majority of films were not stored in this manner, which resulted in the widespread decay of film stocks.
The problem of film decay is not limited to films made on cellulose nitrate. Film industry researchers and specialists have found that color films (those made in the processes which replaced Technicolor) are also decaying at a rapid pace. A number of well-known films only exist as copies of original film productions or exhibition elements because the originals have decomposed beyond use. Cellulose acetate film, which was the initial replacement for nitrate, has been found to suffer from 'vinegar syndrome'. Indeed the preservation of color films has now been found to involve a compromise, because low temperatures, which inhibit color fading, actually increase the effects of vinegar syndrome, while higher (normal room) temperatures cause color fading.
Decay prevention 
"Preservation" of film usually refers to physical storage of the film in a climate-controlled vault, and sometimes to repairing and copying the actual film element. Preservation is different from "restoration." Restoration is the act of returning the film to a version most faithful to its initial release to the public and often involves combining various fragments of film elements.
In most cases, when a film is chosen for preservation or restoration work, new prints are created from the original camera negative or the "composite restoration negative" which is made from often a combination of elements, for general viewing.
The composite restoration negative is a compilation of duplicated sections of the best remaining material, recombined to approximate the original configuration of the original camera negative at some time in the film's release life, while the original camera negative is the remaining, edited, film negative that passed through the camera on the set. This original camera negative may, or may not, remain in original release form, depending upon number of subsequent re-releases after the initial release for theatrical exhibition.
In traditional photochemical restorations, image polarity considerations must be observed when recombining surviving materials and the final, lowest generation restoration master may be either a duplicate negative or a fine grain master positive.
Preservation elements, such as fine grain master positives and duplicate printing negatives, are generated from this restoration master element to make both duplication masters and access projection prints available to future generations.
When restoration and preservation budgets are lower the images are transferred directly to video or digital media for easy transport and copying. Film preservationists would prefer that film images be eventually transferred to other film stock, because no digital media exists that has proven truly archival, while a well-developed and stored, modern film print can last upwards of 100 years.
Today it is universally agreed that the foundation of film preservation is proper protection from external forces while in storage along with being under controlled temperatures. These measures retard deterioration better than any other methods and is a cheaper solution than replicating deteriorating films.
While some in the archival community feel that conversion from film to a digital image results in a loss of quality that can make it more difficult to create a high-quality print based upon the digital image, digital imaging technology is increasing to the point where the resolution in filmed images and digitally transferred images are equal.
The movement 
In 1926 Will Hays asked studios to preserve their films by storing them at 40 degrees at low humidity in an Eastman Kodak process, so that "schoolboys in the year 3,000 and 4,000 A.D. may learn about us".
In 1935, New York's Museum of Modern Art began one of the earliest institutional attempts to collect and preserve motion pictures, obtaining original negatives of the Biograph and Edison companies, and the world's largest collection of D.W. Griffith films. The following year, Henri Langlois founded the Cinémathèque Française in Paris, which would become the world's largest international film collection.
For thousands of early silent films stored in the Library of Congress, mostly between 1894 and 1912, the only existing copies of them were printed on rolls of paper submitted as copyright registrations. For these, an optical printer was used to copy these images onto safety film stock, a project that began in 1947 and continues today.
The George Eastman House International Museum of Photography and Film was chartered in 1947 to collect, preserve, and present the history of photography and film, and in 1996 opened the Louis B. Mayer Conservation Center, one of only four film conservation centers in the United States. The American Film Institute was founded in 1967 to train the next generation of filmmakers and preserve the American film heritage. Its collection now includes over 27,500 titles.
Beginning in the 1970s, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, aware that the original negatives to many of its Golden Age films had been destroyed in a fire, began a preservation program to restore and preserve all of its films by using whatever negatives survived, or, in many cases, the next best available elements (whether it be a fine-grain master positive or mint archival print). From the onset, it was determined that if some films had to be preserved, then it would have to be all of them. In 1986, when Ted Turner acquired MGM's library (which by then had included Warner Bros.' pre-1950, MGM's pre-1986, and a majority of the RKO Radio Pictures catalogs), he vowed to continue the preservation work MGM had started. Time Warner, the current owner of Turner Entertainment, continues this work today.
In 1978, Dawson City, Yukon Territory, Canada a construction excavation inadvertently found a forgotten collection of more than 500 discarded films from the early 20th century that were buried in and preserved in the permafrost. This fortunate discovery was shared and moved to the United States' Library of Congress and Library and Archives Canada for transfer to safety stock and archiving.
The cause for film preservation came to the forefront in the 1980s and early 1990s when such famous and influential film directors as Steven Spielberg and Martin Scorsese contributed to the cause. Spielberg became interested in film preservation when he went to view the original master of his film Jaws, only to find that it had badly decomposed and deteriorated — a mere fifteen years after it had been filmed. Scorsese drew attention to the film industry's use of color-fading film stock through his use of black-and-white film stock in his 1980 film Raging Bull. His film, Hugo included a key scene in which many of film pioneer Georges Méliès' silent films are melted down and the raw material recycled as shoes; this was seen by many movie critics as "a passionate brief for film preservation wrapped in a fanciful tale of childhood intrigue and adventure." 
Scorsese’s concern about the need to save motion pictures of the past led him to create The Film Foundation, a non-profit organization dedicated to film preservation, in 1990. He was joined in this effort by fellow film makers who served on the foundation’s board of directors – Woody Allen, Robert Altman, Francis Ford Coppola, Clint Eastwood, Stanley Kubrick, George Lucas, Sydney Pollack, Robert Redford,and Steven Spielberg. In -2006, Paul Thomas Anderson, Wes Anderson, Curtis Hanson, Peter Jackson, Ang Lee, and Alexander Payne were added to the board of directors of The Film Foundation, which is aligned with the Directors Guild of America.
By working in partnership with the leading film archives and studios, The Film Foundation has saved nearly 600 films, often restoring them to pristine condition. In many cases, original footage that had been excised from the original negative, or censored by the U.S. Production Code, has been reinstated.
In addition to the preservation, restoration, and presentation of classic cinema, the foundation teaches young people about film language and history through The Story of Movies, the organization's groundbreaking educational program, which is currently used by over 100,000 educators.
The film preservation movement has resulted in a number of classic films being restored to pristine condition. In many cases original footage that had been excised — or censored by the Production Code in the U.S. — from the original negative, has been reinstated.
Another high profile restoration by staff at the British Film Institute's National Film and Television Archive is the Mitchell and Kenyon collection, which consists almost entirely of actuality films commissioned by traveling fairground operators for showing at local fairgrounds or other venues across the UK in the early part of the twentieth century. The collection was stored for many decades in two large barrels following the winding-up of the firm, and was discovered in Blackburn in the early 1990s. The restored films now offer an unparalleled social record of early 20th Century British life.
In the age of digital television, HDTV and DVD, film preservation and restoration has taken on commercial as well as historical importance, since audiences demand the highest possible picture quality from digital formats. Meanwhile, the dominance of home video and ever present need for television broadcasting content, especially on specialty cable channels, has meant that films have proven a source of long term revenue to a degree that the original artists and studio management before the rise of these media never imagined. Thus media companies have a strong financial incentive to carefully archive and preserve their complete library of films .
Individual preservationists who have contributed to the cause include Robert A. Harris and James Katz (Lawrence of Arabia, My Fair Lady, and several Alfred Hitchcock films), Michael Thau (Superman), and Kevin Brownlow (Intolerance and Napoleon). Other organizations, such as the UCLA Film and Television Archive, have also preserved and restored films; a major part of UCLA's work includes such projects as Becky Sharp and select Paramount/Famous Studios and Warner Bros. cartoons whose credits were once altered due to rights taken over by different entities.
A number of "lost" movies have become legends in themselves. These movies were either extraordinarily successful or controversial, but all prints of the original films have been lost because they decayed or were destroyed, and thus they were unable to be preserved. Examples of such "lost" films include the original eight-hour version of Greed, and London After Midnight.
Video aids to film preservation 
In 2005 "Video Aids to Film Preservation"  became active on the Internet. The VAFP site was funded as part of a 2005 Institute for Museum and Library Services (IMLS) grant to the Folkstreams project . The purpose of the site is to supplement already existing Film Preservation Guides  with video demonstrations. These preservation guides, while excellent and thorough, are mostly text. Handling film is like working with a sewing machine. Basic activities like splicing, rewinding, cleaning, and repairing are best demonstrated by moving images.
The site is set up as a dynamic database of video clips that can build over time. The clips can be streamed in Real and MPEG-4 or be downloaded in MPEG-4 files. The films and clips are under the rules of Creative Commons which allows anyone to use these clips with attribution - in this case, attribution to the VAFP site and to the author of the clip and his company.
Film restoration issues 
Tears on the print, curling of the film base due to intense light exposure, temperature, humidity etc. all have a significant affect on the preservation process. This brings the commercial viability into the picture. The degree of physical and chemical damage of film influences the motivation to preserve. The business perspective states that once a film is no longer ‘commercially’ viable it stops generating profit and becomes a financial liability . Regardless of age, if stored improperly there can be serious color fading. Once a film is inspected and cleaned it is transferred via telecine to a digital tape or disk and the audio is synced to create a new master. It is hardly the case that the inspected film does not need digital restoration. Nevertheless, many argue that the main obstacle is the high cost of restoring films digitally, several times that of using photochemical techniques. Film restoration facilities must now keep up with the incessant demands for new media, digital cinema and DVD. It is a fact however that restoration is always going to be needed to generate audience acceptance. Old classics must look pristine if they want to be resold on DVD and Blu-ray. The main defects needing restoration:
- Dirt, dust
- Scratches, tears
- Color fade, color change
- Excessive film grain - a copy of an existing film has all of the film grain from the original as well as the film grain in the copy
- Missing scenes and sound; censored or edited out for re-release.
- Shrinkage: linear and "across the web" (width), as well as localized puckering around large 1 to 2 perforation film cement splices, most common in silent and very early sound films. Highly shrunken film, 1.5% or higher, must be copied on modified equipment or the film will likely be damaged.
Modern, digital film restoration follows the following steps:
- Expertly clean the film of dirt and dust.
- Repair all film tears with clear polyester tape or splicing cement.
- Scan each frame into a digital file.
- Restore the film frame by frame by comparing each frame to adjacent frames. This can be done somewhat by computer algorithms with human checking of the result.
- Fix frame alignment - fix jitter and weave - the misalignment of adjacent film frames due to movement of film within the sprockets. This corrects the issue where the holes on each side of a frame are distorted over time. This causes frames to slightly be off center.
- Fix color and lighting changes - this corrects flickering and slight color changes from one frame to another due to ageing of the film.
- Restore areas blocked by dirt and dust by using parts of images in other frames.
- Restore scratches by using parts of images in other frames.
- Enhance frames by reducing film grain noise. Film foreground/background detail about the same size as the film grain or smaller is blurred or lost in making the film. Comparing a frame with adjacent frames allows detail information to be reconstructed since a given small detail may be split between more film grains from one frame to another.
Modern, photochemical restoration follows roughly the same path:
- Extensive research is done to determine what version of the film can be restored from the existing material. Often, great pains are taken to search out alternate material in film archives around the World.
- A comprehensive restoration plan is mapped that allows preservationists to designate elements as "key" elements upon which to base the polarity map for the ensuing photochemical work. Since many alternative elements are actually salvaged from release prints and duplication masters (foreign and domestic), care must be taken to plot the course at which negative, master positive and release print elements arrive back at a common polarity (i.e., negative or positive) for assembly and subsequent printing.
- Test prints are struck from existing elements to evaluate contrast, resolution, color (if color) and sound quality (if audio element exists).
- Elements are duplicated using the shortest possible duplication path to minimize analog duplication artifacts, such as the build-up of contrast, grain and loss of resolution.
- All sources are assembled into a single master restoration element; most often a duplicate negative.
- From this master restoration element, duplication masters, such as composite fine grain masters, are generated to be used to generate additional printing negatives from which actual release prints can be struck for festival screenings and DVD mastering.
The bottom line is that films of the nineteenth century are deteriorating. Putting internal processes on the side, external factors such as wars and floods could destroy these precious collections permanently. If they can be restored and made accessible to the public then why not take advantage of this extraordinary invention? The fact is that at the risk of sounding technology determinist, there will be a solution to the preservation of film and digital format. Cyberspace is developing exponentially one must place it in the context where it is constant to changes in society. For every different medium there has been an exposure of meeting the demands of the audience. If the demands of the audience are to be met then surely a backup of this success is needed and will be sought i.e. an appropriate storage medium. In the next century, film archives may not exist.
Moving Image Collections (MIC) 
Moving Image Collections, or MIC (pronounced ‘Mike’), is a preservation, access, and education initiative co-sponsored by the Association of Moving Image Archivists (AMIA) and the Library of Congress (U.S.). The MIC website  delivers a union catalog, archive directory, and informational resources on archival moving images, their preservation, and the images themselves to diverse constituencies, including archivists, researchers, educators, and the general public.
MIC’s Union Catalog and Archive Directory not only help people locate films and collections, they enable collaborative preservation decision-making and management on an international scale. Detailed Archive Directory descriptions allow archivists to evaluate archival activities in similar repositories, identify organizations with common missions to sponsor research and education portals, and offer training and development in areas of mutual interest. The Directory also enables the Library of Congress and AMIA to identify community needs, potential collaborations, and emerging trends, in order to focus community training and support.
MIC seeks to raise awareness about preservation issues and risks to our film, television and video heritage by enlightening readers as to the care of home collections, the role of archives, and the preservation process. MIC’s expert contributors have created and gathered hundreds of informational resources to illuminate these issues and fulfill the daily informational requirements of working archivists.
MIC’s mission is to immerse moving images into the education mainstream, recognizing that what society uses, it values, and what it values, it preserves. Originally designed to address the crisis in film preservation, MIC demonstrates that recommendations rooted in the practical requirements of preserving analog artifacts can evolve into a visionary R&D platform which serves a clientele beyond archivists and explores the leading edge of non-textual indexing, digital rights management, and educational use, all the while continuing to meet the daily needs of archivists by supporting collaborative preservation, access, digitization, education, and metadata initiatives.
Partial list of restored films 
- The Impossible Voyage (1904)
- The Story of the Kelly Gang (1906)
- The Battle of the Somme (1916)
- Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens (1922)
- Metropolis (1927)
- The Man Who Laughs (1928)
- All Quiet on the Western Front (1930)
- The Big Trail (1930)
- Becky Sharp (1935)
- Love Affair (1939)
- A Star Is Born (1954)
- Seven Samurai (1954)
- Rear Window (1954)
- Vertigo (1958)
- Spartacus (1960)
- Yojimbo (1961)
- Lawrence of Arabia (1962)
- It's a Mad Mad Mad Mad World (1963)
- My Fair Lady (1964)
- Persona (1966)
- The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly (1966)
- Yellow Submarine (1968)
- The Godfather (1972)
- Overlord (1975)
- Superman (1978)
- Superman II (1980)
- Raging Bull (1980)
- Himala (Miracle), a 1982 Filipino film and the CNN Asia Pacific Screen Awards Viewer's Choice Award for the Best Film of all Time from the Asia-Pacific Region have been restored by ABS-CBN Film Archive and Central Digital Lab, Inc. as part of its 30th year anniversary. It was screened at the 69th Venice International Film Festival and will be re-released theatrically within this year.
- Ran (1985)
- Most of the Walt Disney Studio's animated feature films, e.g. Fantasia and Bambi
- Most of the major pre-1948 Warner Bros./pre-1986 MGM/RKO Radio Pictures library, including: Gone with the Wind & The Wizard of Oz (1939), Citizen Kane (1941), Singin' in the Rain (1952), and Doctor Zhivago (1965), among others
- A handful of the 20th Century Fox Charlie Chan movies have recently been digitally restored, which include the following titles:
- Charlie Chan in London, Charlie Chan in Paris, Charlie Chan in Egypt, Charlie Chan in Shanghai, Charlie Chan at the Circus, Charlie Chan at the Olympics, Charlie Chan at the Opera, Charlie Chan at the Race Track, Charlie Chan's Secret, Charlie Chan at Monte Carlo, Charlie Chan on Broadway and The Black Camel.
Film decay as an art form 
In 2002, filmmaker Bill Morrison produced Decasia, a film solely based on fragments of old unrestored nitrate-based films in various states of decay and disrepair, providing a somewhat eerie aesthetic to the film. The film was paired together with a soundtrack composed by Michael Gordon, and performed by his orchestra. The footage used was from old newsreel & archive film, and was obtained by Morrison from several sources, such as the Fox Movietone Newsfilm Archives at the University of South Carolina, and the archives of the Museum of Modern Art.
See also 
- 3D LUT
- Digital cinematography
- Digital intermediate
- Direct to Disk Recording
- Film recorder
- List of film formats
- Lowry Digital - John D. Lowry
- Motion picture film scanner
- Orphan film
- Paper prints
- Post production
- (Virtual) Telecine
- Wiping (magnetic tape)
- McGreevey, Tom. Our Movie Heritage. Rutgers University Press, 1997.
- Dave Kehr (October 14, 2010). "Film Riches, Cleaned Up for Posterity". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-10-15. "It’s bad enough, to cite a common estimate, that 90 percent of all American silent films and 50 percent of American sound films made before 1950 appear to have vanished forever."
- The Film Preservation Guide: The Basics for Archives, Libraries and Museums. National Film Preservation Foundation. San Francisco, CA, 2004.
- Robert A. Harris, public hearing statement to the National Film Preservation Board of the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., February 1993.
- "Films put in Ice for Fans Yet Unborn. Movies Deemed Peculiarly Worthy of Preservation Will Be Treated to Last Forever. Screen Cornerstones. Films for Fans Yet Unborn". New York Times. October 24, 1926, Sunday. "Will Hays has sent a call to the motion-picture companies to search their vaults for ancient films of all kinds and for news reels of possible historic interest. The most important of these are to be treated by a process developed in the Eastman laboratories for making films immortal."
- [dead link]
- Passion Cinéma
- "Early Motion Pictures Free of Copyright Restrictions in the Library of Congress". Library of Congress. 2010-08-31. Retrieved 2011-04-14.
- Oscars.org[dead link]
- "Museum History · George Eastman House". Eastmanhouse.org. Retrieved 2011-04-14.
- American Film Institute. "History of AFI". Afi.com. Retrieved 2011-04-14.
- You Must Remember This: The Warner Bros. Story (2008), p. 255.
- WB retained a pair of features from 1949 that they merely distributed, and all short subjects released on or after September 1, 1948; in addition to all cartoons released in August 1948.
- Todd McCarthy, Hugo: Film Review, The Hollywood Reporter, November 17, 2011
- "A Digital Restoration Retrospective". American Cinematheque at the Egyptian Theatre. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
Further reading 
- Audiovisual archives : a practical reader / edited and compiled by Helen P. Harrison for the General Information Programme and UNISIST. - Paris : UNESCO, 1997.
- Cave, D. (2008). "Born digital" – Raised an orphan?: Acquiring digital media through an analog paradigm. The Moving Image. 8(1), 1-13.
- Crofts, C (2008) Digital Decay. The Moving Image. 8 (2), xiii-35.
- Gracy, K. F. (2007). Film preservation: Competing definitions of value, use, and practice. Chicago: The Society of American Archivists.
- Gschwind, R. (2002). Restoration of movie films by Digital Image Processing? In Niseen, D., Larsen, L.R., Christensen, T.C., and Johnsen, J.S. (Eds.) Preserve then Show. Danish Film Institute.
- Karr, Lawrence. Edited by Barbara Cohen- Stratyner.: Film Preservation at Preserving America’s Performing Arts. Papers from the conference on Preservation Management for Performing Arts Collection. April 28-May 1, 1982, Washington, D.C. Theater Library Association.
- Kula, Sam. Appraising Moving Images. Assesing the Archival and Monetary Value of Film and Video Records. Scarecrow Press, 2003.
- McGreevey, Tom: Our Movie Heritage. Rutgers University Press, 1997.
- Paul Read and Mark-Paul Meyer (Editors:): Restoration of motion picture film. Oxford, 2000. ISBN 0-7506-2793-X
- Read, P. (2002). Digital Image Restoration – Black Art or White Magic? In In Niseen, D., Larsen, L.R., Christensen, T.C., and Johnsen, J.S. (Eds.) Preserve then Show. Danish Film Institute.
- Slide, Anthony: Nitrate Won't Wait: A History of Film Preservation in the United States, McFarland and Company, 1992.
- Walsh, D. (2008). How to preserve your films forever. The Moving Image. 8(1), 38-41.
- National Film Preservation Board
- (Historical Film & Video Preservation Society,Australia)
- The Film Foundation (Martin Scorsese, President)
- National Film Preservation Foundation
- Video Aids to Film Preservation (VAFP)
- Moving Image Collections (defunct)
- Public Moving Image Archives and Research Centers
- Association of Moving Image Archivists (AMIA)
- International Federation of Film Archives (FIAF)
- Conservation Online: Motion Picture Film Preservation
- Digital-Nitrate Prize for Film Preservation
- Collection of film restoration issues, collected by Joanneum Research
- The National Film and Sound Archive on Preservation
- The Journal of Film Preservation, published by FIAF
- The International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives
- The Film Foundation
- Film Forever: The Home Film Preservation Guide
- Australian Network for Information on Cellulose Acetate
- http://www.homedvd.ca: Restoration ideas using DSP
- Film Restoration for 8mm, 9.5mm & 16mm film