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A First Lady is an unofficial title used in the USA and other republics for the wife of the president. Collectively, the president and spouse are known as the First Couple. If they have a family, this is usually referred to as the First Family. The term is sometimes used, particularly in the USA, to refer to the spouse of other heads of state, even if they do not have that style in their own country. Some other countries have a title, formal or informal, that is or can be translated as first lady. The title is not normally used for the wife of a prime minister or other head of government who is not head of state.
The term lady originates in England. The designation First Lady seems to have originated in the United States, where one of the earliest references was applied to Martha Washington. In an 1843 newspaper article that appeared in the Boston Courier, the author, "Mrs. Sigourney", discussing how Martha Washington had not changed, even after her husband George became president, wrote that "The first lady of the nation still preserved the habits of early life. Indulging in no indolence, she left the pillow at dawn, and after breakfast, retired to her chamber for an hour for the study of the scriptures and devotion". Some sources say that, in 1849, President Zachary Taylor called Dolley Madison "first lady" at her state funeral, while reciting a eulogy written by himself. But, no copy of that eulogy has been found to corroborate the quote.
In the early days of the United States, there was no generally accepted title for the wife of the president. Many early first ladies expressed their own preference for how they were addressed, including the use of such titles as Lady, Mrs. President, or Mrs. Presidentress (in the case of Julia Tyler).
Harriet Lane, niece of bachelor President James Buchanan, was the first woman to be called first lady while actually serving in that position. The phrase appeared in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Monthly in 1860, when he wrote, "The Lady of the White House, and by courtesy, the First Lady of the Land." Once Harriet Lane was called first lady, the term was applied retrospectively to her predecessors.
The title first gained nationwide recognition in 1877, when Mary C. Ames wrote an article in the New York City newspaper The Independent describing the inauguration of President Rutherford B. Hayes. She used the term to describe his wife, Lucy Webb Hayes.
Presidential Partner and Political Institution 
||The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (May 2013)|
Since 1789, first ladies have been more influential and active both politically and in terms of social hostess. They are in the tendency of becoming highly ambitious, determined, liberated and intelligent. As supportive wives, first ladies influence the presidents in not only personal and public life, but also in political career and social attitude. Political influences include presidents’ speech writing and editing, policy advising and advocating, electing presidential appointment and campaigning. First ladies also have so called “Pillow” influences. For example, their family life, social interests and moral believe affect the presidents. What’s more, first ladies bring about impacts on the social attitude toward women. Since first ladies play an important role in presidential spouse, they have some political activism such as pet projects, substantive policy issues, public support, ceremonial and social functions.
Use in the United States 
While historically the term has generally been used to refer to the wife of a president, there were occasions when another woman, such as the President's daughter, has filled the duties of First Lady as hostess in the White House, if the President's wife was unwilling, unable, or if the President was a widower or bachelor. The current First Lady of the United States is Michelle Obama, wife of Barack Obama. In American media the term First Lady is often applied to the wife of a head of state in another country, irrespective of whether a different appellation (or none) is used in that country. The entire family of the head of state may be known familiarly as the "First Family". The spouse of the second-in-command (such as a Vice President) may be known as the "Second Lady", or Vice-First Lady. Less frequently, the family would be known as the "Second Family". The spouse of the governor of a U.S. state is commonly referred to as the First Lady or First Gentleman of that state, for example "First Lady Jessica Doyle of Wisconsin." The practice is less common for spouses of mayors but is nevertheless used for some, particularly in large cities; example: "First Lady Amy Rule of Chicago" or "First Lady Kris Barrett of Milwaukee." Mike Gregoire, husband of former Washington state governor Chris Gregoire, preferred to use his name instead of a common noun, calling himself "First Mike".
Use in other countries 
The term first lady has been used by the press to describe the female spouse of a head of state or representative thereof in countries other than the United States. For example, in Canada, a 1902 article in Munsey's Magazine said of the wife of Governor General the Earl of Minto: "As the first lady in the land, she has done much to weld together the heterogeneous components of a colonial society which includes peoples of different races and of antagonistic religions."  And the press also used this term to refer to the wife of Mexico's leader, President Porfirio Díaz. In a piece about "The Daughters of Mexico" in Munsey's Magazine in 1896, author Jeannie Marshall said of Carmen Romero Rubio de Diaz: "She is still a young woman, though she has filled the position of 'first lady of the land' for many years, with marked success."  This does not seem to be only an English-language custom. Spanish-language newspapers such as La Prensa of San Antonio TX also called her by the Spanish term "primera dama" when writing about her activities, referring to her as "La primera dama de Mexico, Doña Carmen Romero Rubio de Diaz" (for example, "Domincales," La Prensa, 19 September 1917, p. 4).
The current First Lady of Albania is Odeta Nishani.
The term "Primera Dama" is used.
During the administration of President Kamuzu Banda, Malawi had an "Official Hostess" who served in the same capacity as "First Lady" because the President was unmarried. Banda was never married and therefore Cecilia Kadzamira served in this capacity for the nation.
Non-spousal uses 
In some situations, the title is bestowed upon a non-spouse. This includes terms like "First Family", "First Daughter", and "First Son".
In the past, occasionally another woman, such as the President's daughter, has filled the duties of First Lady as hostess in the White House, if the President's wife was unwilling, unable, or if the President was a widower or bachelor. Harriet Lane, niece of bachelor President James Buchanan was the first non-spouse to be called First Lady.
After taking office as Puerto Rico's first female governor, Governor Sila Maria Calderón appointed her two daughters, Sila María González Calderón and María Elena González Calderón, to serve as First Ladies.
Following the leadership spill which installed Julia Gillard as the first female Prime Minister of Australia on 24 June 2010, some news media referred to her de facto partner, Tim Mathieson, as the "First Bloke".
Apolitical uses 
It has become commonplace in the United States for the title of "First Lady" to be bestowed on women, as a term of endearment, who have proven themselves to be of exceptional talent or unique notoriety in non-political areas. The phrase is often, but not always, used when the person in question is either the wife or "female equivalent" of a well-known man (or men) in a similar field. For example, the term has been applied in the entertainment field to denote the "First Lady of Television" (Lucille Ball), the "First Lady of Song" (Ella Fitzgerald), the "First Lady of Country Music" (Tammy Wynette, although Loretta Lynn was also known by the title), the "First Lady of Star Trek" (Majel Barrett), the "First Lady of American Soul" (Aretha Franklin), the "First Lady of the Grand Ole Opry" (Loretta Lynn), and the "First Lady of the American Stage" (Helen Hayes) .
The term "first lady" is also used to denote a woman who occupies the foremost social position within a particular locality.
- "The Role of First Lady and Origin of the Title "First Lady"". The National First Ladies' Library.
- Colombia government web site: example of the use of "Primera Dama"
- "Lord & Lady: Their Surprising Origin". Bill Casselman's Words of the World.
- "Martha Washington," Boston Courier, 12 June 1843, p.4
- "Dolley Madison". National First Ladies Library. Retrieved 2007-04-29.
- Robert P. Watson, "The First Lady Reconsidered: Presidential Partner and Political Institution.” Presidential Studies Quarterly Autumn 1997:805-818 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27551802
- "First Family — Definitions from Dictionary.com". dictionary.com. Retrieved 2007-07-19. "2. The family of the chief executive of a city, state, or country."
- "First Gentleman – What's in a Name?". State of Michigan.
- "About Mike". Governor Chris Gregoire's official state website.[dead link]
- "In The Public Eye: The Governor-General of Canada," p. 684. http://www.unz.org/Pub/Munseys-1902feb-00681
- Jeannie A. Marshall, "The Daughters of Mexico." http://www.unz.org/Pub/Munseys-1896sep-00713?View=Search&SearchView=PDFHits&pages=714
- "Mystery of the Banda millions". BBC News. 2000-05-17.
- Malawi's hostess speaks out
- Geun Hye Park (2007). The Republic of Korea and the United States: Our Future Together. Institute for Corean-American Studies, Inc. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
- Boricuas Hall of Fame: Biografía de Sila M. Calderón
- Preston, Richard (2007-05-25). "Are you ready to think outside the box? The abuses of the English language that readers hated most have inspired a new Telegraph book, explains Richard Preston". Daily Telegraph. p. 24.
- Didion, Joan (2007-03-04). "The Year Of Hoping For Magic". New York Times. p. 1.
- Sellers, Maud (April 1894). "The City of York in the Sixteenth Century". The English Historical Review 9 (34): 275–304. doi:10.1093/ehr/IX.XXXIV.275.; Russell, A. (1889). Journal of the American Geographical Society of New York 21. pp. 494–515.
Further reading 
- Bailey, Tim. "America’s First Ladies on Twentieth-Century Issues: A Common Core Unit," History Now 35 (Spring 2013) online, curriculum unit based on primary sources
- Berkin, Berkin, ed., "America's First Ladies," History Now 35 (Spring 2013) online; popular essays by scholars
- Burns, Lisa M. (2008). First Ladies and the Fourth Estate: Press Framing of Presidential Wives. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press. ISBN 978-0-87580-391-3
- Lugo-Lugo, Carmen R. and Mary K. Bloodsworth-Lugo. "Bare Biceps and American (In) Security: Post-9/11 Constructions of Safe(ty), Threat, and the First Black First Lady," Women's Studies Quarterly (2011) 39#1 pp 200-217, on media images of Michelle Obama
- Watson, Robert P. "Toward the Study of the First Lady: The State of Scholarship," Presidential Studies Quarterly (2003) 33#2 pp 423-441.