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Music video by Rihanna performing Rehab. YouTube view counts pre-VEVO: 19591123. (C) 2007 The Island Def Jam Music Group.
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Music video by Rihanna performing Russian Roulette. (C) 2009 The Island Def Jam Music Group.
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Ellen weighed in on the conversation surrounding the policies of Abercrombie & Fitch.
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Oscar López Rivera
|Native name||Oscar López Rivera|
|Born||Oscar López Rivera
January 6, 1943
San Sebastián, Puerto Rico
|Residence||Terre Haute, Indiana|
|Known for||Longest-incarcerated advocate for Puerto Rico's independence|
|Home town||San Sebastián, Puerto Rico|
|Criminal charge||Seditious conspiracy; attempted to overthrow the American Government in Puerto Rico|
|Criminal penalty||Seditious conspiracy|
|Criminal status||Incarcerated by the U.S. Government|
|Co-founder of the Rafael Cancel Miranda High School, now (the Dr. Pedro Albizu Campos High School)|
|Co-founder of the Juan Antonio Corretjer Puerto Rican Cultural Center.|
|Former community organizer for the Northwest Community Organization (NCO), ASSPA, ASPIRA and the 1st Congregational Church of Chicago.|
|Co-founder of FREE, a half-way house for convicted drug addicts, and ALAS, an educational program for Latino prisoners at Stateville Prison in Illinois.|
Has been incarcerated for 31 years, 11 months, and 16 days
Oscar López Rivera is a Puerto Rican Nationalist who was convicted and sentenced to 70 years in prison for seditious conspiracy and various other offenses. He was among the 16 Puerto Rican nationalists offered conditional clemency by U.S. President Bill Clinton in 1999, but he rejected the offer. His sister, Zenaida López, said he refused the offer because on parole, he would be in "prison outside prison."
Early years and personal life 
Oscar López Rivera was born in San Sebastián, Puerto Rico, on 6 January 1943. His family moved to the U.S. when he was nine years old. At the age of 14, he moved to Chicago to live with a sister. At age 18 he was drafted into the army and served in Vietnam and awarded the Bronze Star. When he returned to Illinois from the war in 1967, he found that drugs, unemployment, housing, health care and education in the Puerto Rican community had reached dire levels and set to work in community organizations to improve the quality of life for his people.
He was a well-respected community activist and an independence leader for many years prior to his arrest. Oscar worked in the creation of both the Puerto Rican High School and the Puerto Rican Cultural Center. He was also involved in the struggle for bilingual education in public schools and to force universities to actively recruit Latino students, staff, and faculty. He worked on ending discrimination in public utilities like Illinois Bell, People's Gas, and Commonwealth Edison.
Oscar was one of the founders of the Rafael Cancel Miranda High School, now known as the Dr. Pedro Albizu Campos High School and the Juan Antonio Corretjer Puerto Rican Cultural Center. He was a community organizer for the Northwest Community Organization (NCO), ASSPA, ASPIRA and the 1st Congregational Church of Chicago. He helped to found FREE, a half-way house for convicted drug addicts, and ALAS, an educational program for Latino prisoners at Stateville Prison in Illinois.
Seditious conspiracy 
The U.S. Government describes López Rivera as one of the leaders of the Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional (FALN), a Puerto Rican Nationalist group linked to more than 100 bombings and five deaths in the 1970s. López Rivera will neither confirm nor deny his affiliation with the FALN and disowns any personal involvement in the bombing deaths.
At his trial 1980-81, López and the other Chicago-based FALN comrades were not tied to specific bombings. Instead, he was convicted of seditious conspiracy ("attempt to overthrow the government of the United States in Puerto Rico by force"), armed robbery, and lesser offenses. Declaring his status as a prisoner of war, he refused to participate in the proceedings.
None of the bombings of which they were convicted resulted in deaths or injuries. López Rivera was given a 70-year federal sentence for seditious conspiracy and other charges. Among the other convicted Puerto Rican nationalists there were sentences of as long as 90 years in Federal prisons for offenses including sedition, possession of unregistered firearms, interstate transportation of a stolen vehicle, interference with interstate commerce by violence and interstate transportation of firearms with intent to commit a crime. None of those granted clemency were convicted in any of the actual bombings. Rather, they had been convicted on a variety of charges ranging from bomb making and conspiracy to armed robbery and firearms violations. They were all convicted for sedition, the act of attempting to overthrow the Government of the United States in Puerto Rico by force.
Human rights violations 
There were reports of human rights violations against the FALN prisoners. The prisoners were placed in prisons far from their families, some were sexually assaulted by prison personnel, some were denied adequate medical attention, and others were kept in isolated underground prison cells for no reason. Amnesty International and the House of Representatives' Subcommittee on Courts, Intellectual Property and the Administration of Justice both criticized the conditions. The conditions were found to be in violation of the U.N. Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners. A federal judge also addressed his concerns in the case of Baraldine vs. Meese.
In 1988, he was convicted of conspiracy to escape and given an additional 15 years. After spending twelve years in maximum security prisons in Marion, Illinois and Florence, Colorado, under conditions described as oppressive, in 1998, he was transferred to the general prison population at the federal correctional facility in Terre Haute, Indiana, where he remains today. In 2006, the United Nations called for the release of the remaining Puerto Rican political prisoners in United States prisons.
Political prisoner 
At the time of their arrest López Rivera and the others declared themselves to be combatants in an anti-colonial war against the United States to liberate Puerto Rico from U.S. domination and invoked prisoner of war status. They argued that the U.S. courts did not have jurisdiction to try them as criminals and petitioned for their cases to be handed over to an international court that would determine their status. The U.S. Government, however, did not recognize their request.
According to president Bill Clinton, the sentences received by López Rivera and the other Nationalists were judged to be "out of proportion to the nationalists' offenses." U.S. Government statistics showed their sentences were almost 20 times greater than sentences for similar offenses by the American population at large.
For many years, numerous national and international organizations criticized López Rivera' incarceration categorizing it as political imprisonment. On 7 June 2012, Puerto Rican activist Tito Kayak started a two-leg lone high seas voyage from Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela, to San Juan, Puerto Rico, and then from San Juan, Puerto Rico, to Washington, D.C., USA, to protest the U.S. incarceration of Puerto Rican political prisoner López Rivera. López Rivera is said to be "among the longest held political prisoners in the history of Puerto Rico and in the world." He has been jailed for 31 years, 11 months, and 16 days.
Supporters of López Rivera have accused the U.S. Federal Bureau of Prisons of isolating López Rivera on the basis of his political beliefs. For more than half of his 22 years in prison, López Rivera has been held in solitary confinement in maximum security prisons in the United States. López's release date is scheduled for June 26, 2023.
Recent events 
López Rivera requested parole via his attorney but it was denied in February 2011.
In an "ingenious manifestation of solidarity" to demand the release of Lopez Rivera, "numerous volunteers" will participate in a 24-hour demonstration where they will remain confined to 6ft x 9ft mock-up prison cells intended to represent Lopez Rivera's current cell size in Terre Haute, IN. The demonstrations will take place at the central squares of Puerto Rico's four largest cities, San Juan, Ponce, Mayaguez, and Arecibo, on 29 May 2013.
The 12 convicted prisoners 
On August 11, 1999, President Bill Clinton extended an offer of clemency to 14 of the Puerto Rican political prisoners convicted on February 18, 1981. López Rivera refused the clemency offer. Twelve accepted the offers and were subsequently released. The twelve were:
- Edwin Cortes, sentenced to 35 years in prison.
- Elizam Escobar, sentenced to 60 years in prison.
- Ricardo Jimenez, sentenced to 90 years in prison.
- Adolfo Matos, sentenced to 70 years in prison.
- Dylcia Noemi Pagan, sentenced to 55 years in prison.
- Alicia Rodriguez, sentenced to 55 years in prison.
- Ida Luz Rodriguez, sentenced to 75 years in prison.
- Luis Rosa, sentenced to 75 years in prison.
- Carmen Valentin, sentenced to 90 years in prison.
- Alberto Rodriguez, sentenced to 35 years in prison.
- Alejandrina Torres, sentenced to 35 years in prison.
- Juan Enrique Segarra-Palmer, served an additional five years after clemency was granted and had his fine dropped. He was sentenced to 55 years in prison on October 4, 1985, and was released on January 25, 2004.
- John M. Broder (1999-11-08). "12 Imprisoned Puerto Ricans Accept Clemency Conditions". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
- Charles Babington (1999-09-11). "Puerto Rican Nationalists Freed From Prison". Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
- “Oscar López Rivera, Entre la Tortura y la Resistencia”, by Luis Nieves Falcón. "Repeating Islands: News and commentary on Caribbean culture, literature, and the arts." 2 December 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
- Puerto Rico: Free Oscar López Rivera! Steven Katsineris. Green Left Weekly. Issue 879. 15 May 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
- ProLIBERTAD. ProLIBERTAD Campaign for the Freedom of Puerto Rican Political Prisoners and Prisoners of War: Arm the Spirit 30 October 1995.
- James, Joy. Warfare in the American Homeland: Policing and Prison in a Penal Democracy. Duke University Press, 2007. ISBN 0-8223-3923-4. P.159
- Rosales, Francisco. Dictionary of Latino Civil Rights History. Arte Publico Press, 2006. ISBN 1-55885-347-2. P.159
- http://www.westword.com/1995-07-12/news/end-of-the-line/ Prendergast, Alan. End of the line. Denver Westword, July 12, 1995. Retrieved on 2008-11-21
- Hanley, Charles. "Puerto Rican Inmate Has No Regrets For His Terrorist Actions" The Seattle Times, May 10, 1998. Retrieved on 2008-11-21
- "12 Imprisoned Puerto Ricans Accept Clemency Conditions" by John M. Broder. The New York Times September 8, 1999
- United States Department of Justice. Office of the Pardon Attorney: Commutations of Sentences.
- "Eleven Puerto Rican Nationalists Freed from Prison" CNN. September 10, 1999
- "Puerto Rican Inmate Has No Regrets For His Terrorist Actions" by Charles J. Hanley. The Seattle Times May 10, 1998
- James, Joy. Warfare in the American Homeland: Policing and Prison in a Penal Democracy. Duke University Press, 2007. ISBN 0-8223-3923-4. P.159
- United Nations General Assembly. Special Committee on Decolonization Approves Text Calling on United States to Expedite Puerto Rican Self-determination Process: Draft Resolution Urges Probe of Pro-Independence Leader’s Killing, Human Rights Abuses; Calls for Clean-up, Decontamination of Vieques. June 12, 2006.(GA/COL/3138/Rev.1*). Department of Public Information, News and Media Division, New York. Special Committee on Decolonization, 8th & 9th Meetings. (Issued on 13 June 2006.)
- The Puerto Rican movement: voices from the diaspora. By Andrés Torres. Temple University Press. 1998. Page 147.
- The Puerto Rican movement: voices from the diaspora. By Andrés Torres. Temple University Press. 1998. Pages 148-149.
- Peoples Law Office. Puerto Rico.
- "Eleven Puerto Rican Nationalists Freed from Prison" Cable News Network (CNN). September 10, 1999
- Tito Kayak vuelve a enfrentar problemas en el mar. Noticel. 2 July 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- Travesia a remo por la libertad y la paz: Desde Ciudad Bolivar hasta Puerto Rico en solaridad con el preso politico mas antiguo: Oscar López Rivera. CCS. (via Cyber News) Bolivar, Venezuela. Year 3. Issue 1002. 17 May 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2012. (originally by Brenda Peña López of El Nuevo Dia, Guaynabo, Puerto Rico.)
- Unete a la travesia admirable por la libertad de Oscar Lopez Rivera. Roso Grimau. 17 May 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- United Nations General Assembly. Special Committee on Decolonization Approves Text Calling on United States to Expedite Puerto Rican Self-determination Process: Draft Resolution Urges Probe of Pro-Independence Leader’s Killing, Human Rights Abuses; Calls for Clean-up, Decontamination of Vieques. June 12, 2006.(GA/COL/3138/Rev.1*). Department of Public Information, News and Media Division, New York. Special Committee on Decolonization, 8th & 9th Meetings. (Issued on 13 June 2006.) The Approved Text reads, in part, "As in previous years, ...the Special Committee called on the President of the United States to release Puerto Rican political prisoners..." (page 1)
- Center for Puerto Rican Studies, Hunter College, City University of New York. Guide to the Ruth M. Reynolds Papers: Archives of the Puerto Rican Diaspora. August 1991 and December 2003. Updated 2005. Reviews Puerto Rico - U.S. relations, including cases of Puerto Rican political prisoners.
- Vito Marcantonio, U.S. Congressman. In his August 5, 1939, speech before Congress titled Five Years of Tyranny. (Recorded in the Congressional Record. August 14, 1939.) In the words of Congressman Marcantonio, "There is no place in America for political prisoners...When we ask ourselves, 'Can it happen here?' the Puerto Rican people can answer, 'It has happened in Puerto Rico.' as he spoke about the treatment of Puerto Rican Nationalist and U.S. prisoner Pedro Albizu Campos. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
- "Puerto Rican community celebrates release of political prisoner" Chicago Sun-Times. Report states, "Chicago's Puerto Rican community celebrates the release of political prisoner Carlos Alberto Torres..."
- "Puerto Rican Nationalist Sentenced to 7 Years for 1983 Wells Fargo Robbery in Conn." Fox News Network. May 26, 2010
- "Carlos Alberto Torres, Puerto Rican Nationalist Imprisoned In Illinois For 30 Years, Returns Home To Puerto Rico" The Huffington Post July 28, 2010
- Lolita Lebrón, Puerto Rican Nationalist, Dies at 90" by Douglas Martin. The New York Times August 3, 2010
- "The Circle Game" Prendergast, Alan. The Denver Westworld. Retrieved on 11-12-2008
- Retorna el Festival de Claridad. La Perla del Sur. Ponce, Puerto Rico. 20 February 2013. Year 31. Issue 1525. Page 26. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- Crean cárcel para libertad de Oscar López. Reinaldo Millán . La Perla del Sur. Ponce, Puerto Rico. Year 31. Issue 1537. Page 12. 15 May 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- PrisonActivist.org Prison Activist Resource Cneter. Oakland, California. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- Hundreds Greet Nationalist Freed After 19 Years In Prison. Laura Rivera Melendez, Associated Press. 25 January 2004. Puerto Rico Herald. Retrieved 27 December 2011.