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Japanese: 尖閣諸島 (Senkaku)
Chinese: 釣魚台列嶼 (Diaoyutai/Tiaoyutai)
or 钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿 (Diaoyu/Tiaoyu)
|Location of the islands (red rectangle and inset).|
|Total islands||5 + 3 rocks|
|Major islands||Uotsuri-shima / Diaoyu Dao
Taishō-tō / Chiwei Yu
Kuba-shima / Huangwei Yu
Kita-Kojima / Bei Xiaodao
Minami-Kojima / Nan Xiaodao
|Area||7 square kilometres (1,700 acres)|
|People's Republic of China|
|Township||Toucheng, Yilan County, Taiwan Province|
|Republic of China (Taiwan)|
|Township||Toucheng, Yilan County, Taiwan Province|
The Senkaku Islands (尖閣諸島 Senkaku-shotō , variants: 尖閣群島 Senkaku-guntō and 尖閣列島 Senkaku-rettō), also known as the Diaoyu Islands (Chinese: 钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿; pinyin: Diàoyúdǎo jí qí fùshǔ dǎoyǔ; also simply 钓鱼岛) in Mainland China or Tiaoyutai Islands (Chinese: 釣魚台列嶼; pinyin: Diàoyútái liè yǔ) in Taiwan, or the Pinnacle Islands, are a group of uninhabited islands controlled by Japan in the East China Sea. They are located roughly due east of Mainland China, northeast of Taiwan, west of Okinawa Island, and north of the southwestern end of the Ryukyu Islands.
After it was discovered in 1968 that oil reserves might be found under the sea near the islands, Japan's sovereignty over them has been disputed by the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC, commonly known as Taiwan) following the transfer of administration from the United States to Japan in 1971. The Chinese claim the discovery and control of the islands from the 14th century. Japan controlled the islands from 1895 until its surrender at the end of World War II. The United States administered them as part of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands from 1945 until 1972, when the islands reverted to Japanese control under the Okinawa Reversion Treaty between the United States and Japan.
The islands are an issue in foreign relations between Japan and the PRC and between Japan and the ROC. Despite the complexity of relations between the PRC and ROC, both governments agree that the islands are part of Taiwan as part of Toucheng Township in Yilan County of their respective divisions. Japan does not officially recognize Taiwan as a sovereign state, and regards the islands as a part of Ishigaki, Okinawa Prefecture and acknowledges neither the claims of the PRC nor ROC to the islands. The Japanese government has not allowed Ishigaki to develop the islands.
Records of these islands date back to as early as the 15th century. They were referred as Diaoyu in books such as Voyage with a Tail Wind (simplified Chinese: 顺风相送; traditional Chinese: 順風相送; pinyin: Shùnfēng Xiāngsòng) (1403)  and Record of the Imperial Envoy's Visit to Ryūkyū (simplified Chinese: 使琉球录; traditional Chinese: 使琉球錄; pinyin: Shĭ Liúqiú Lù) (1534). Adopted by the Chinese Imperial Map of the Ming Dynasty, the Chinese name for the island group (Diaoyu) and the Japanese name for the main island (Uotsuri) both mean "fishing".
The first published description of the islands in Europe was in a book imported by Isaac Titsingh in 1796. His small library of Japanese books included Sangoku Tsūran Zusetsu (三国通覧図説 An Illustrated Description of Three Countries ) by Hayashi Shihei. This text, which was published in Japan in 1785, described the Ryūkyū Kingdom. In 1832, the Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland supported the posthumous abridged publication of Titsingh's French translation.
The name, "Pinnacle Isles" was apparently first applied to them by James Colnett, who charted them during his 1789-1791 voyage in the Argonaut. William Robert Broughton sailed past them in November 1797 during his voyage of discovery to the North Pacific in HMS Providence, and referred to Uotsuri Island as "Peaks Island". Reference was made to the islands in a in Edward Belcher's 1848 account of the voyages of HMS Sammarang. Captain Belcher observed that "the names assigned in this region have been too hastily admitted." Belcher reported anchoring off Pinnacle Island in March 1845.
In 1870s and 1880s, the English name Pinnacle Islands was used by the British navy for the rocks adjacent to the largest island Uotsuri-shima /Diaoyu Dao (then called Hoa-pin-su, 和平屿, "Peace Island"); Kuba-shima /Huangwei Yu (then called Ti-a-usu); and Taishō-tō/Chiwei Yu. The name "Pinnacle Islands" is used by some as an English-language equivalent to "Senkaku" or "Diaoyu".
The collective use of the name "Senkaku" to denote the entire group began with the advent of the controversy in the 1970s.
Japanese and US control
The Japanese central government formally annexed the islands on 14 January 1895, naming them Senkaku, or “Pinnacled Pavilions.” Around 1900, Japanese entrepreneur Koga Tatsushirō (古賀 辰四郎) constructed a bonito processing plant on the islands with 200 workers. The business failed in 1940 and the islands have remained deserted ever since. In the 1970s, Koga Tatsushirō's son Zenji Koga and Zenji's wife Hanako sold four islets to the Kurihara family of Saitama Prefecture. Kunioki Kurihara owned Uotsuri, Kita-Kojima, and Minami-Kojima. Kunioki's sister owns Kuba.
The islands came under US government occupation in 1945 after the surrender of Japan ended World War II. In 1969, the United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) identified potential oil and gas reserves in the vicinity of the Senkaku Islands. In 1971, the Okinawa Reversion Treaty passed the U.S. Senate, returning the islands to Japanese control in 1972. Also in 1972, the Taiwanese and Chinese governments officially began to declare ownership of the islands.
Since the islands reverted to Japanese government control in 1972, the mayor of Ishigaki has been given civic authority over the territory. The Japanese central government, however, has prohibited Ishigaki from surveying or developing the islands. In 1979 an official delegation from the Japanese government composed of 50 academics, government officials from the Foreign and Transport ministries, officials from the now-defunct Okinawa Development Agency, and Hiroyuki Kurihara, visited the islands and camped on Uotsuri for about four weeks. The delegation surveyed the local ecosystem, finding moles and sheep, studied the local marine life, and examined whether the islands would support human habitation.
From 2002 to 2012, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications paid the Kurihara family ¥25 million a year to rent Uotsuri, Minami-Kojima and Kita-Kojima. Japan's Ministry of Defense rents Kuba island for an undisclosed amount. Kuba is used by the U.S. military as a practice aircraft bombing range. Japan's central government completely owns Taisho island.
On 17 December 2010, Ishigaki declared January 14 as "Pioneering Day" to commemorate Japan's 1895 annexation of the Senkaku Islands. China condemned Ishigaki's actions. In 2012, both the Tokyo Metropolitan and Japanese central governments announced plans to negotiate purchase of Uotsuri, Kita-Kojima, and Minami-Kojima from the Kurihara family.
On 11 September 2012, the Japanese government nationalized its control over Minami-kojima, Kita-kojima, and Uotsuri islands by purchasing them from the Kurihara family for ¥2.05 billion. China's Foreign Ministry objected saying Beijing would not "sit back and watch its territorial sovereignty violated."
The island group consists of five uninhabited islets and three barren rocks.
These minor features in the East China Sea are located approximately 120 nautical miles northeast of Taiwan, 200 nautical miles east of the Chinese mainland and 200 nautical miles southwest of the Japanese island of Okinawa.
In ascending order of distances, the island cluster is located:
- 140 kilometres (76 nmi; 87 mi) east of Pengjia Islet, ROC 
- 170 kilometres (92 nmi; 110 mi) north of Ishigaki Island, Japan
- 186 kilometres (100 nmi; 116 mi) northeast of Keelung, ROC
- 410 kilometres (220 nmi; 250 mi) west of Okinawa Island, Japan
|No.||Japanese name||Chinese name||Coordinates||Area (km2)||Highest elevation (m)|
|1||Uotsuri-shima (魚釣島)||Diaoyu Dao (釣魚島)||4.32||383|
|2||Taishō-tō (大正島)||Chiwei Yu (赤尾嶼)||0.0609||75|
|3||Kuba-shima (久場島)||Huangwei Yu (黃尾嶼)||1.08||117|
|4||Kita-kojima (北小島)||Bei Xiaodao(北小島)||0.3267||135|
|5||Minami-kojima (南小島)||Nan Xiaodao(南小島)||0.4592||149|
|6||Oki-no-Kita-iwa (沖ノ北岩)||Da Bei Xiaodao(大北小島/北岩)||0.0183||nominal|
|7||Oki-no-Minami-iwa (沖ノ南岩)||Da Nan Xiaodao (大南小島/南岩)||0.0048||nominal|
|8||Tobise (飛瀬)||Fei Jiao Yan (飛礁岩/飛岩)||0.0008||nominal|
- China's interpretation of the geography is that
"...the Okinawa Trough proves that the continental shelves of China and Japan are not connected, that the Trough serves as the boundary between them, and that the Trough should not be ignored ...."
- Japan's interpretation of the geography is that
"...the trough is just an incidental depression in a continuous continental margin between the two countries ... [and] the trough should be ignored ...."
Flora and fauna
Permission for collecting herbs on three of the islands was recorded in an Imperial Chinese edict of 1893.
Uotsuri-shima, the largest island, has a number of endemic species such as the Senkaku Mole (Mogera uchidai) and Okinawa-kuro-oo-ari ant. Due to domestic goats introduced to the island in 1978, the Senkaku mole is an endangered species.
Albatross are observed in the islands. Amongst all islands, Minami Kojima is one of the few breeding places of the rare Short-tailed Albatross (Phoebastria albatrus).
The People's Republic and Taiwan claim that the islands have been a part of Chinese territory since at least 1534. They acknowledge that Japan took control of the islands in 1894–1895 during the first Sino-Japanese War, through the signature of the Treaty of Shimonoseki. They assert that the Potsdam Declaration (which Japan accepted as part of the San Francisco Peace Treaty) required that Japan relinquish control of all islands except for "the islands of Honshū, Hokkaidō, Kyūshū, Shikoku and such minor islands as we determine", and they state that this means control of the islands should pass to China.
Japan does not accept that there is a dispute, asserting that the islands are an integral part of Japan. Japan has rejected claims that the islands were under China's control prior to 1895, and that these islands were contemplated by the Potsdam Declaration or affected by the San Francisco Peace Treaty.
- People's Republic of China–Japan relations
- Republic of China–Japan relations
- China Federation for Defending the Diaoyu Islands
- Action Committee for Defending the Diaoyu Islands
- Ganbare Nippon
- Kuril Islands
- Spratly Islands
- Paracel Islands
- National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Senkaku-guntō, Japan, retrieved September 20, 2010.
- National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Senkaku-rettō, Japan, retrieved September 20, 2010.
- WantChinaTimes.com (8 July 2012). "Former New Taipei councilor explains PRC flag controversy". WantChinaTimes.com. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
- Lee, Seokwoo. Territorial Disputes among Japan, China and Taiwan concerning the Senkaku Islands (Boundary & Territory Briefing Vol.3 No.7). IBRU. p. 6. ISBN 1897643500. " The question of the disputed Senkaku Islands remained relatively dormant throughout the 1950s and 1960s, probably because these small uninhabited islands held little interest for the three claimants. The Senkaku Islands issue was not raised until the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (hereinafter 'ECAFE') of the United Nations Economic and Social Council suggested the possible existence of large hydrocarbon deposit in the waters off the Senkaku Islands. ... This development prompted vehement statements and counter-statements among the claimants."
- Pan, Junwu (2009). Toward a New Framework for Peaceful Settlement of China's Territorial and Boundary Disputes. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 140. ISBN 9004174281. "Obviously, primarily regional interests in oil and gas resources that may lie under the seas drive the two major disputes. The Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands issue did not re-surface until 1969 when the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East of the United Nations Economic and Social Council reported that the continental shelf of the East China "might contain one of the most prolific oil and gas reservoirs of the world, possibly comparing favourably with the Persian Gulf." Then both China and Japan had high expectations that there might be large hydrocarbon deposits in the waters off the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands. The Law of the Sea at that time emphasized the theory of natural prolongation in determining continental shelf jurisdiction. Ownership of the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands would permit the owner to a large area of the continental shelf that may have rich sources of gas and oil. Such a dispute is obviously related to the awakening interest by the world's states in developing offshore energy resources to meet the demand of their economies."
- Takamine, Tsukasa (2012). Japan’s Development Aid to China, Volume 200: The Long-running Foreign Policy of Engagement. Routledge. p. 129. ISBN 0415352037. "The islands had temporarily come under American control after the Second World War, but the sovereignty over the islands, was handed over to Japan in 1972 with the reversion of Okinawa．However, the PRC and Taiwan governments both made a territorial claim to the Senkaku Islands, soon after the United Nation Economic Commission issued in 1969 a report suggesting considerable reserve of submarine oil and gas resources around the islands."
- Drifte, Reinhard (2012). Japan's Security Relations with China Since 1989: From Balancing to Bandwagoning?. Routledge. p. 49. ISBN 1134406673. "The dispute surfaced with the publication of a seismic survey report under the auspices of the UN Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECSFE) in 1968, which mentioned the possibility of huge oil and gas reserves in the area; this was confirmed by a Japanese report in 1969. Greg Austin mentions that Beijing started its claim to the Senkaku Islands for the first time in 1970, after Japanese government protested to the government in Taiwan about its allocation of oil concessions in the East China Sea, including the area of the Senkaku Islands."
- Lee, Seokwoo. Territorial Disputes among Japan, China and Taiwan concerning the Senkaku Islands (Boundary & Territory Briefing Vol.3 No.7). IBRU. pp. 10–11. ISBN 1897643500. "For a long time following the entry into force of the San Francisco Peace Treaty China/Taiwan raised no objection to the fact that the Senkaku Islands were included in the area placed under US administration in accordance with the provisions of Article of the treaty, and USCAP No. 27. In fact, neither China nor Taiwan had taken up the question of sovereignty over the islands until the latter half of 1970 when evidence relating to the existence of oil resources deposited in the East China Sea surfaced. All this clearly indicates that China/Taiwan had not regarded the Senkaku Islands as a part of Taiwan. Thus, for Japan, none of the alleged historical, geographical and geological arguments set forth by China/Taiwan are acceptable as valid under international law to substantiate China's territorial claim over the Senkaku Islands."
- Lee, Seokwoo. (2002). Territorial Disputes Among Japan, China and Taiwan Concerning the Senkaku Islands, pp. 10–13. at Google Books
- McDorman, Ted L. (2005). "Central Pacific and East Asian Maritime Boundaries" in International Maritime Boundaries, Vol. 5, pp. 3441. at Google Books
- Title: Liang zhong hai dao zhen jing / [Xiang Da jiao zhu].Imprint: Beijing : Zhonghua shu ju : Xin hua shu dian Beijing fa xing suo fa xing, 2000 reprint edition. Contents: Shun feng xiang song--Zhi nan zheng fa. (順風相送--指南正法). ISBN ISBN 7-101-02025-9. pp96 and pp253. The full text is available on wikisource.
- WorldCat, Sangoku Tsūran Zusetsu; alternate romaji Sankoku Tsūran Zusetsu
- Cullen, Louis M. (2003). A History of Japan, 1582–1941: Internal and External Worlds, p. 137. at Google Books
- Klaproth, Julius. (1832). San koku tsou ran to setsu, ou Aperçu général des trois royaumes, pp. 169–180. at Google Books
- “Pinnacle Rock in Latitude 29°40’ and Longitude 132° E. of London... This Navigation is no ways dangereous were you sure of your Latitude and to make Pinnicle Isle”. James Colnett, The Journal ... aboard the Argonaut from April 26, 1789 to Nov. 3, 1791, ed. with introd. and notes by F. W. Howay, Toronto, Champlain Society Vol.26, 1940, p.47.
- William Robert Broughton, William Robert Broughton's Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific, 1795-1798, edited by Andrew David ; with an introduction by Barry Gough, Ashgate for the Hakluyt Society, Farnham, England; Burlington, VT, 2010, p.202.
- Suganuma, Unryu. (2001). Sovereign Rights and Territorial Space in Sino-Japanese Relations, at Google Books
- Belcher, Edward. (1848). Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Samarang, Vol. I, pp. 315. at Google Books; Belcher, Vol. II, pp. 572–574. at Google Books.
- Belcher, Vol. I, at Google Books; excerpt at p. 317, "On the 16th, we endeavoured to obtain observations on Tia-usu; a landing was effected, but the absence of sun prevented our obtaining satisfactory observations, and bad weather coming on hastened our departure. This group, comprehending Hoa-pin-san (和平山，"Peace Island", Uotsuri-shima), Pinnacle Rocks, and Tias-usu (Kuba-shima), form a triangle, of which the hypothenuse, or distance between Hoa-pin-san and Tia-usu, extends about fourteen miles, and that between Hoa-pinsan and the Southern Pinnacle, about two miles."
- Suganuma, p. 90. at Google Books; Jarrad, Frederick W. (1873). The China Sea Directory, Vol. IV, pp. 141–142. at Google Books
- Hagström, Linus. (2005). Japan's China Policy: A Relational Power Analysis, at Google Books
- Koo, Min Gyo (2009). Disputes and Maritime Regime Building in East Asia, p. 103 n2. citing Park (1973) "Oil under Troubled Waters: The Northeast Asia Seabed Controversy," 14 HILJ (Harvard International Law Journal) 212, 248–249; also Park, Choon-Ho. (1972)Continental Shelf Issues in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. Kingston, Rhode Island: Law of the Sea Institute, pp. 1–64.
- Kaneko, Maya, (Kyodo News) "Ishigaki fishermen fret over Senkaku encroachment", Japan Times, December 8, 2010, p. 3.
- "BBC News - Japan confirms disputed islands purchase plan". bbc.co.uk. 2012 [last update]. Retrieved 10 September 2012. "Kunioki Kurihara"
- Ito, Masami, "Owner OK with metro bid to buy disputed Senkaku Islands", Japan Times, 18 May 2012, pp. 1-2
- "Senkaku/Diaoyutai Islands". Globalsecurity.org.
- Finney, John W. "Senate Endorses Okinawa Treaty; Votes 84 to 6 for Island's Return to Japan," New York Times. November 11, 1971.
- Kyodo News, "Senkaku purchase bid made official", Japan Times, 11 September 2012, p. 2
- Ito, Masami, "Jurisdiction over remote Senkakus comes with hot-button dangers", Japan Times, 18 May 2012, p. 1
- Hongo, Jun, "Tokyo's intentions for Senkaku islets", Japan Times, 19 April 2012, p. 2.
- Agence France-Presse, "Senkaku memorial day riles China", Japan Times, December 19, 2010, p. 1. Retrieved January 29, 2011.
- NHK World, "Senkaku Isles Nationalized", 11 September 2012
- "Japan says it will purchase disputed islands from private owner, angering China". Washington Post. AP. September 10, 2012. Retrieved September 10, 2012.
- UC Berkeley: UC Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation; retrieved November 15, 2010.
- Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrals (ACAP), Breeding site details: Agincourt/P'eng-chia-Hsu
- Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI), 魚釣島 (Uotsuri-shima).
- GSI, 大正島 (Taishō-tō).
- GSI, 久場島 (Kuba-shima).
- Google Maps, 北小島 (Kita kojima); GSI, 北小島 (Kita kojima).
- Google Maps, 南小島 (Minami Kojima)
- GSI, 沖ノ北岩 (Okino Kitaiwa).
- GSI, 沖ノ南岩 (Okino Minami-iwa).
- GSI, 飛瀬 (Tobise).
- Ji, Guoxing. (1995). "Maritime Jurisdiction in the Three China Seas," p. 11; Sibuet, Jean-Claude et al. "Back arc extension in the Okinawa Trough," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 92, Issue B13, p. 14041-14063.
- Ji, p. 11.
- Ji, p. 11; excerpt, "In 1893, Empress Dowager Tsu Shih of the Qing Dynasty issued an imperial edict .... China argues that discovery accompanied by some formal act of usage is sufficient to establish sovereignty over the islands."
- Zoological Society of London, EDGE (Evolutionary Distinct & Globally Endangered) Senkaku mole, 2006; retrieved November 15, 2010.
- Porcasi, Judith F. (1999). "Prehistoric Exploitation of Albatross on the Southern California Channel Islands," Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology. Vol. 21 (1), pp. 109, citing Hasegawa, Hiroshi. (1979). "Status of the Short-tailed Albatross of Torishimia and in the Senkaku Retto in 1978/79. Pacific Seabird Group Bulletin 6:23–25; and Hasegawa, Hiroshi and Anthony R. Degange. (1982). "The Short-tailed Albatross, 'Diamedea albatrus, Its Status, Distribution and Natural History." American Birds, 36(5):806–814.
- Netherlands Institute for the Law of the Sea (NILOS). (2000). International Organizations and the Law of the Sea, p. 108. at Google Books
- Ji, pp. 11–12, 19.
- Belcher, Edward and Arthur Adams. (1848). Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Samarang, During the Years 1843–46: Employed Surveying the Islands of the Eastern Archipelago. London : Reeve, Benham, and Reeve. OCLC 192154
- Charney, Jonathan I., David A. Colson, Robert W. Smith. (2005). International Maritime Boundaries, 5 vols. Hotei Publishing: Leiden. 10-ISBN 0792311876/13-ISBN 9780792311874; 10-ISBN 904111954X/13-ISBN 9789041119544; 10-ISBN 9041103457/13-ISBN 9789041103451; 10-ISBN 9004144617/13-ISBN 9789004144613; 10-ISBN 900414479X/13-ISBN 9789004144798; OCLC 23254092
- Findlay, Alexander George. (1889). A Directory for the Navigation of the Indian Archipelago and the Coast of China. London: R. H. Laurie. OCLC 55548028
- Hagström, Linus. (2005). Japan's China Policy: A Relational Power Analysis. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-34679-5; OCLC 475020946
- Inoue, Kiyoshi. (1972) Senkaku Letto /Diaoyu Islands The Historical Treatise. Kyoto: Daisan Publisher (出版社: 第三書館) (1996/10)「尖閣」列島―釣魚諸島の史的解明 [単行本]. ISBN 978-4-8074-9612-9; also hosted in here for online reading (set to Shift-JIS character code), with English synopsis here. Chinese translation by Ying Hui, Published by Commercial Press Hong Kong (1973) 釣魚列島的歷史和主權問題 / 井上清著 ; 英慧譯, ISBN 9622574734.
- Jarrad, Frederick W. (1873). The China Sea Directory, Vol. IV. Comprising the Coasts of Korea, Russian Tartary, the Japan Islands, Gulfs of Tartary and Amúr, and the Sea of Okhotsk. London: Hydrographic Office, Admiralty. OCLC 557221949
- Lee, Seokwoo, Shelagh Furness and Clive Schofield. (2002). Territorial disputes among Japan, China and Taiwan concerning the Senkaku Islands. Durham: University of Durham, International Boundaries Research Unit (IBRU). ISBN 978-1-897643-50-1; OCLC 249501645
- Suganuma, Unryu. (2000). Sovereign Rights and Territorial Space in Sino-Japanese Relations. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2159-3; OCLC 170955369
- Valencia, Mark J. (2001). Maritime Regime Building: Lessons Learned and Their Relevance for Northeast Asia. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. 10-ISBN 9041115803/13-ISBN 9789041115805; OCLC 174100966
- Donaldson, John and Alison Williams. "Understanding Maritime Jurisdictional Disputes: The East China Sea and Beyond," Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 59, No. 1.
- Dzurek, Daniel. "The Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands Dispute," International Boundaries Research Unit (IBRU). October 18, 1996.
- Helflin, William B. "Daiyou/Senkaku Islands Dispute: Japan and China, Oceans Apart," 1 Asian-Pacific Law & Policy Journal 1–22 (2000).
- Peterson, Alexander M. "Sino-Japanese Cooperation in the East China Sea: A Lasting Arrangement?" 42 Cornell International Law Journal 441–474 (2009).
- Ramos-Mrosovsky, Carlos. "International Law's Unhelpful Role in the Senkaku Islands,", 29 University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Law 903-946 (2008).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Senkaku Islands|
- Google maps, Senkaku Islands
- "Q&A China Japan island row," BBC News Asia-Pacific. September 24, 2010.
- Globalsecurity.org — "Senkaku/Diaoyutai Islands"; References, Links
- Inventory of Conflict and Environment (ICE), Diaoyu Islands Dispute
- Waseda University — Hayashi Shihei. (1785). 三国通覧図説 (Sangoku Tsuran Zusetsu)