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Music video by Rihanna performing Take A Bow. YouTube view counts pre-VEVO: 66288884. (C) 2008 The Island Def Jam Music Group.
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Music video by P!nk performing Try (The Truth About Love - Live From Los Angeles). (C) 2012 RCA Records, a division of Sony Music Entertainment.
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||This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
|First appearance||Malibu Sun #13 (May 1992)|
|Created by||Todd McFarlane|
|Alter ego||Albert Francis "Al" Simmons|
|Notable aliases||The One, Hellspawn|
Spawn is a fictional character, a comic book superhero who appears in a monthly comic book of the same name published by Image Comics. Created by writer/artist Todd McFarlane, the character first appeared in Malibu Sun #13 (May 1992). Spawn was ranked 60th on Wizard magazine's list of the Top 200 Comic Book Characters of All Time, 50th on Empire magazine's list of The 50 Greatest Comic Book Characters and 36th on IGN's 2011 Top 100 Comic Book Heroes.
The series has spun off several other comics, including Angela, Curse of the Spawn, Sam & Twitch, and the Japanese manga Shadows of Spawn. Spawn was adapted into a 1997 feature film, an HBO animated series lasting from 1997 until 1999, and a series of action figures whose high level of detail made McFarlane Toys known in the toy industry.
Publication history 
||This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2009)|
The Spawn character is influenced by the Marvel character, Prowler, featured in various Spider-man issues, including some drawn by McFarlane. He enjoyed considerable popularity upon its initial release in the 1990s. Comic book collecting was enjoying a marked upswing at the time, fueled by the speculator boom looking for the next hot book that would jump in value after its release. McFarlane had also already enjoyed superstar status among comic fans with his work on Spider-Man, which had featured McFarlane's name prominently as both writer and artist. McFarlane's subsequent break with Marvel and the formation of Image Comics was seen by many as a sea-change event, changing the very way in which comics were produced. Wizard, on May 2008, rated "The Launch of Image Comics" as No.1 in the list of events that rocked the Comic Industry from 1991 to 2008. During Spawn's second year of publication, Wizard noted that "The top dog at Image is undoubtedly Todd McFarlane's Spawn, which, without the added marketing push of fancy covers, polybagged issues, or card inserts has become the best-selling comic on a consistent basis that is currently being published."
The first issue of Spawn was very popular with sales of 1.7 million copies, however, the series's popularity faded over time. A 2008 issue, Spawn #174, ranked 99th best-selling comic of the month with retail orders of 22,667. The popularity of the franchise peaked with the 1997 Spawn feature film, which was only a mild commercial success and failed to start a film franchise based on the character.
In October 2008, issue #185, which marked both a new creative direction and Todd McFarlane's return to the book, sold out at the distribution level and warranted a second printing. By issue #191 in May 2009, with estimated sales of 19,803 copies, Spawn had dropped below Top 100 titles sold monthly to comic shops as reported by Diamond Comic Distributors.
As of August 2010 Spawn no longer was ranked in the top 300 sales figures chart reported by Diamond Comic Distributors, issue 200 has been delayed.
On January 12, 2011, issue #200 completely sold out within that single day. This issue features an all-star creative lineup, including Greg Capullo, David Finch, Michael Golden, Jim Lee, Rob Liefeld, Marc Silvestri, Danny Miki, and Ashley Wood all contributing to the anniversary issue. A second printing was released on February 9, 2011. Despite its remarkable sales, it received a negative review from IGN.
Fictional character biography 
Mortal life 
Albert Francis "Al" Simmons was born in Detroit, Michigan as the second of three children (Marc, Al, and Richard) to Esther and Bernard Simmons. Simmons was a very gifted officer of the United States Marine Corps, where he attained the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. He later joined the United States Secret Service, which led to his transfer to the Central Intelligence Agency. In the CIA, Simmons was recruited by Director Jason Wynn into a special top-secret covert ops division known as the U.S. Security Group, an elite task force with jurisdiction in all domestic and foreign situations.
Simmons was murdered during a mission in Botswana for the USSG's Operation Knightstrike by fellow mercenary Bruce Stinson (also known as Chapel), at the order of Director Wynn, and was sent to hell because of his life as an assassin. After arranging a deal with the being known as Malebolgia, Simmons agrees to become a Hellspawn in exchange for being allowed to see his wife, Wanda Blake, one last time.
Malebolgia returns Simmons to the world, but with little memory, a badly burned and disfigured body, and his newly acquired hellspawn powers. Overseen by a demon known as The Violator (Clown) that monitors his commitment to Malebolgia's pact, Simmons slowly realizes that five years have passed since his death. After deciding to seek out Wanda for his one final visit, he shape-shifts his body but discovers his powers cannot indefinitely maintain his former appearance. After locating her, Simmons discovers that his wife has since married his best friend, Terry Fitzgerald, and the two have a daughter, Cyan. Emotionally shattered at his discovery, Simmons is left with the choice of whether to fulfill his agreement with Malebolgia.
Powers and abilities 
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2011)|
While Spawn's abilities have fluctuated over the years, his core powers are derived from the necroplasm that makes up his body. This dense substance grants him superhuman strength, weight, stamina, and healing. Despite his weight, he is superhumanly agile and can jump to great heights and across long distances. His necroplasm also gives him necro-magic, a variety of supernatural powers including teleportation, phasing, resurrecting the dead, necro-energy blasts, biological manipulation, and much more. He can unleash the very fury of Hell through his body, however his magic is limited by a meter which starts at 9,999 and drains each time he uses his necroplasm. He is able to "feed" off the evil energy of the world including people and "dark animals" (rats, bats, roaches, worms, insects, wolves, and snakes). He is also an empathic being able to sense the emotions of others whenever he chooses. He can manipulate the elements and fly.
Spawn wears a living, sentient necroplasm-based symbiote suit, named Leetha of the 7th house of K (K7-Leetha). The suit feeds from the necroplasm in Spawn's body and his cape, spikes, and chains are all part of an organism that is bonded to his central nervous system; because of this connection he can mentally manipulate the suit to perform shapeshifting feats without draining his necro-meter.
Although Spawn is virtually immortal, he may be killed by a holy weapon forged in Heaven or by his own necro-power. He is also rendered powerless (and therefore mortal) in places that are immune to the influence of Hell, such as The Dead Zone (a patch of alley that is touched by Heaven) and the Greenworld.
Spawn also holds a vast arsenal of military grade weaponry and equipment as he frequently uses firearms as an alternative to his supernatural powers.
Spinoffs and crossovers 
- Angela miniseries
- In 1994 and 1995, a three-issue Angela limited series was published, written by Neil Gaiman and illustrated by Greg Capullo. The series along with Angela's one-shot were later reprinted in a trade paperback (ISBN 1-887279-09-1), which, as of 2005, is out-of-print.
- Spawn: Blood Feud
- Spawn miniseries during 1995, issues 1-4. Written by Alan Moore. Drawn by Tony Daniel. Ink by Kevin Conrad.
- Spawn The Impaler
- Three-issue miniseries released in October 1996, inspired by the story of the Wallacian voivode Vlad Ţepeş. Written by Mike Grell with art by Rob Prior.
- Spawn: The Dark Ages
- This series focused on Lord Covenant, a 12th Century knight killed in a holy crusade far from his homeland, who returns to Earth as a Hellspawn. As a plague of violence and turmoil cover the English countryside, the Dark Knight must choose whether to align himself with the innocent inhabitants of the once-thriving kingdom or with the malevolent forces of evil and corruption. The series ran for 28 issues. Issues 15-28 featured writer Steve Niles and artist Nat Jones.
- Curse of the Spawn
- Tales of other Hellspawn and Spawniverse characters, including Sam & Twitch, Angela, Jessica Priest, and Antonio Twistelli.
- Spawn: Blood and Salvation
- A prestige-format one shot that concludes the story of Daniel Llanso, the Hellspawn featured in the first four issues of Curse of the Spawn.
- A relatively avant-garde spin-off comic inspired by Spawn. Darker and more atmospheric than Spawn, Hellspawn frequently dealt with disturbing subject matter. It originally featured writer Brian Michael Bendis and artist Ashley Wood.
- Spawn: Blood and Shadows
- A Spawn prestige-format one shot released in 1999. Written by Paul Jenkins with art by Ashley Wood.
- Sam & Twitch + Case Files: Sam & Twitch
- A spin-off series following the crime investigations of detectives Sam Burke and Twitch Williams. Sam and Twitch ended in 2003 after 26 issues, to be followed by Case Files.
- Spawn: The Undead
- This series concentrates on Al Simmons. Unlike the original Spawn series, it was self-contained, single-issue stories. Written by Paul Jenkins it lasted 9 issues.
- Spawn: Godslayer
- Originally a prestige format one-shot, Godslayer became an ongoing series.
- Spawn: Simony
- Published in 2003 by Semic of France, McFarlane allowed the creators (Jean-François Porchero and Alex Nikolavitch) to create an original Spawn tale without using Image comics.
- Shadows of Spawn
- Recently released on American shores are three graphic novel compilations of the Spawn manga, known as Shadows of Spawn.
- Spawn: Architects of Fear
- A prestige format one-shot released in February 2008. Written by Arthur Claire with artwork by Aleksi Briclot.
- The Adventures of Spawn
- At the San Diego Comic Con (SDCC) '06 it was announced that a new take on the Spawn mythos was in the works. This new Spawn story is known as The Adventures of Spawn and as stated by Jon Goff, a moderator on the Spawn.com Message Board and McFarlane employee, it is a re-imagining of the Spawn story that is essentially a "What If?" universe that hearkens back to classic kid-friendly Saturday morning cartoons. The story takes place in a webcomic format and has been tied into the action figure world through McFarlane Toys' Spawn Series 30.
- A three issue miniseries written by Alan Moore with art by Bart Sears which focused on the conflict between Violator/Clown and Tony Twist and also featured Spawn.
- Spawn has appeared in crossover storylines involving Batman, Invincible, Witchblade, Wildcats, Youngblood, Savage Dragon, Cerebus, The Ant, Shadowhawk and Sonic the Hedgehog
- Angela has also been featured in several crossovers. The "Rage of Angels" miniseries saw Angela meeting Glory in Angela and Glory (1996), and was continued in Youngblood #6 (1996) and Team Youngblood #21. There was also a crossover Aria/Angela, featuring Angela in the Aria comic series.
- Clown/Violator was also part of a Violator/Badrock crossover miniseries.
- Spawn also appeared in one panel in Archie Comics' Sonic Super Special #7, mistaking Sonic and Knuckles for kids in costumes.
- Spawn appeared in the Xbox version of the fighting game Soulcalibur II.
- Jim Downing is a character in the Image Comics crossover, Image United, as is his suit's previous host, Al Simmons (now a villain known as "Omega Spawn").
Legal disputes 
Dispute with Neil Gaiman 
In 1993, McFarlane contracted Neil Gaiman to write Spawn #9. While doing so, Gaiman introduced the characters Cogliostro, Angela, and Medieval Spawn. All three characters were designed and co-created by Todd McFarlane and continued to be featured in the series after Gaiman's involvement, and some had tie-ins with McFarlane's toy company. Cogliostro had a prominent role in the live-action movie in 1997. McFarlane had agreed that Gaiman was a co-creator of the characters and paid him royalties for reprints, graphic novels, and action figures. After a few years he ceased the payment of royalties and gave Gaiman notice that he owned all rights to the characters, citing the copyright notice from #9 and claimed that Gaiman's work had been work-for-hire and that McFarlane was the sole owner.
In 2002, Gaiman filed suit against McFarlane and in response McFarlane counter-sued. Gaiman had partnered with Marvel Comics to form Marvels and Miracles, LLC which bankrolled the lawsuit. The main goal was to determine the issue of ownership for another character Gaiman felt he had a stake in, Miracleman, which at the time McFarlane was believed to hold a sizable stake in after his buyout of the assets of Eclipse Comics. This issue was thrown out. Instead the court chose to rule on the breach of contract issue, the rights of ownership, and the copyrightability of the characters from Spawn #9. Several arguments were presented by McFarlane and all were rejected, leading to a sizable judgment against McFarlane and Image Comics. The matter went to appeal and the judgment was upheld in a 2003 decision.
Gaiman's rights as co-creator and co-owner of Cogliostro, Angela, and Medieval Spawn were acknowledged. The court's view was that Gaiman and McFarlane's collaboration led to each contributing half of the work. Gaiman wrote the story while McFarlane illustrated the character; because of this each held a 50% stake in the characters. The fallout of this lawsuit is still unclear and the issue of Miracleman is yet to be resolved. However, it is possible that it has fallen out, since issue 9 was reprinted for the first time since the lawsuit was filed in the hardcover edition of Spawn Origins: Volume 1. In a recent reprint collection of the first twelve issues of Spawn, the contentious issue (along with Dave Sim's #10, featuring copyrighted character Cerebus) was excluded, but both issues have been reprinted in the hardcover and deluxe editions Spawn Origins: Volume 1.
Tony Twist suit 
Todd McFarlane created a mob enforcer character named "Antonio 'Tony Twist' Twistelli," who McFarlane acknowledged was named after hockey player Tony Twist. Twist won a $15 million verdict in 2004 when a St. Louis, Missouri jury found Todd McFarlane Productions had profited from Twist's likeness. The verdict was upheld after two appeals in June 2006.
Creative teams 
Collected editions 
Many issues of Spawn have been gathered together in various trade paperbacks collections since the mid-nineties. The original US and UK trade releases contain Issue 9, but not 10 (Cerebus' appearance).
US releases 
Each containing four to five issues, the original Spawn trade paperbacks started in 1995 under a different trade cover design. After the live-action 1997 movie, a new trade cover design was created, with Brent Ashe providing new covers for Books 1-7, and Ashley Wood for Books 8-12. These reissues were retitled with subtitles. The sequential trades stopped after Book 12, but several new volumes appeared in 2006–2008, collecting various story arcs. Beginning in 2009, a new series of volumes was released, collecting the "Endgame" storyline.
- Book 1, "Beginnings", 1-5
- Book 2, "Dark Discoveries", 6-9, 11
- Book 3, "Book 3", 12-15
- Book 4, "Book 4", 16-20
- Book 5, "Death and Rebirth", 21-25
- Book 6, "Pathway to Judgement", 26-30
- Book 7, "Deadman's Touch", 31-34
- Book 8, "Betrayal of Blood", 35-38
- Book 9, "Urban Jungle", 39-42
- Book 10, "Vengeance of the Dead", 43-47
- Book 11, "Crossroads", 48-50 (50 is double-sized)
- Book 12, "Immortality", 51-54
- Spawn: The Armageddon Collection Part 1 - contains issues 150-155
- Spawn: The Armageddon Collection Part 2 - contains issues 156-164
- Spawn: The Complete Armageddon Collection - contains issues 150-164
- Spawn: New Flesh Collection (December 2007) - contains issues 166-169
(note: Issue #165 wasn't included because it features the story of Mandarin Spawn)
- Spawn: Neo Noir - contains issues 170-175
- Spawn: Endgame Volume 1 (June 2009) - contains issues 185-190
- Spawn: Endgame Volume 2 (April 2010) - contains issues 191-196
- Spawn: Endgame Collection (January 2011) - combines Endgame Vol 1 and 2 (issues 185-196)
- Spawn: New Beginnings Volume 1 (July 2011) - contains issues 201-206.
- Spawn: New Beginnings Volume 2 (March 2012) - contains issues 207-212.
Spawn Collection 
In 2005 the entire Spawn series began to appear in massive trade paperback releases under the title Spawn Collection, each containing (with the exception of Volume 1) approximately twenty issues. Released after the Gaiman lawsuit, these editions do not contain either Issue 9 (featuring the first appearance of Angela and Cogliostro, both created by Neil Gaiman) or Issue 10 (featuring Dave Sim's Cerebus).
Spawn Collection Volumes 1 and 2 were published in both hardcover and trade paperback formats, while Volume 3 onward were only released as trade paperbacks. As of 2009, Spawn Collection Volume 1 is currently out of print, with its fourth printing released in June 2007. In 2009 it was announced that the Spawn Collection would end with Volume 6, to be replaced by a new TBP format that includes soft- and hardcover versions, reprinting the entire Spawn series from the early issues once again (see below).
- Spawn Collection Volume 1 - contains issues 1-8, 11-12 (December 2005)
- Spawn Collection Volume 2 - contains issues 13-33 (July 2006)
- Spawn Collection Volume 3 - contains issues 34-54 (March 2007)
- Spawn Collection Volume 4 - contains issues 55-75 (September 2007)
- Spawn Collection Volume 5 - contains issues 76-95 (April 2008)
- Spawn Collection Volume 6 - contains issues 96-116 (August 2008)
Spawn Collection Volume 1 was ranked 17 in the top 100 graphic novels for December 2005 period, with pre-order sales of 3,227.
Spawn Origins Collection 
In 2009, a line of newly redesigned and reformatted trade paperbacks was announced, replacing the Spawn Collection line (see above) and once again collecting the early issues of Spawn. These new trades feature new cover art by Greg Capullo, recreating classic Spawn covers. In addition to the 6 issue trade paperbacks, this line features three oversized 12-13 issue hardcovers, and two large 25-issue limited slipcased deluxe editions (which come in both a standard edition and a signed and numbered edition limited to 500 copies). The 12-issue hardcover edition of Volume One was the first to reprint both Issues 9 and 10, and the 25-issue hardcover editions did as well.
- Spawn Origins Collection Volume 1 - collects issues #1-6 (May 2009)
- Spawn Origins Collection Volume 2 - collects issues #7-9, 11-14 (July 2009)
- Spawn Origins Collection Volume 3 - collects issues #15-20 (December 2009)
- Spawn Origins Collection Volume 4 - collects issues #21-26 (January 2010)
- Spawn Origins Collection Volume 5 - collects issues #27-32 (May 2010)
- Spawn Origins Collection Volume 6 - collects issues #33-38 (July 2010)
- Spawn Origins Collection Volume 7 - collects issues #39-44 (September 2010)
- Spawn Origins Collection Volume 8 - collects issues #45-50 (November 2010)
- Spawn Origins Collection Volume 9 - collects issues #51-56 (February 2011)
- Spawn Origins Collection Volume 10 - collects issues #57-62 (March 2011)
- Spawn Origins Collection Volume 11 - collects issues #63-68 (June 2011)
- Spawn Origins Collection Volume 12 - collects issues #69-74 (September 2011)
- Spawn Origins Collection Volume 13 - collects issues #75-80 (January 2012)
- Spawn Origins Collection Volume 14 - collects issues #81-86 (March 2012)
- Spawn Origins Collection Volume 15 - collects issues #87-92 (June 2012)
- Spawn Origins Collection Volume 16 - collects issues #93-98 (September 2012)
- Spawn Origins Collection Volume 17 - collects issues #99-104 (February 2013)
Deluxe Edition 
- Spawn Origins Collection: Deluxe Edition Volume 1 - collects issues #1-25
- Spawn Origins Collection: Deluxe Edition Volume 2 - collects issues #26-50
- Spawn Origins Collection: Deluxe Edition Volume 3 - collects issues #51-75
Hardcover Edition 
- Spawn Origins: (Hardcover Edition) Book 1 - collects issues #1-12
- Spawn Origins: (Hardcover Edition) Book 2 - collects issues #13-25
- Spawn Origins: (Hardcover Edition) Book 3 - collects issues #26-37
- Spawn Origins: (Hardcover Edition) Book 4 - collects issues #38-50
- Spawn Origins: (Hardcover Edition) Book 5 - collects issues #51-62
- Spawn Origins: (Hardcover Edition) Book 6 - collects issues #63-75
- Spawn Origins: (Hardcover Edition) Book 7 - collects issues #76-87 (September 2012)
- Spawn Origins: (Hardcover Edition) Book 8 - collects issues #88-100 (April 9, 2013)
UK releases 
These releases were originally published in fifteen 5-6-issue volumes in the UK by Titan Books, with titles named by religious theme. The following books contained original series issues 1-82, with the exception of the previously mentioned Issue 10.
- "Creation" - contains issues 1-5
- "Evolution" - contains issues 6-9 and 11
- "Revelation" - contains issues 12-15
- "Escalation" - contains issues 16-20
- "Confrontation" - contains issues 21-25
- "Retribution" - contains issues 26-30
- "Transformation" - contains issues 31-36
- "Abduction" - contains issues 37-42
- "Sanction" - contains issues 43-48
- "Damnation" - contains issues 49-53
- "Corruption" - contains issues 54-58
- "Devastation" - contains issues 59-64
- "Termination" - contains issues 65-70
- "Resurrection" - contains issues 71-76
- "Ascension" - contains issues 77-82
South African releases 
Originally published by a South African publisher named Battle Axe Press in the early 1990s. Only the first 10 issues were published due to legal matters. The comic book prints were released on standard paper as opposed to the original glossy paper from Image comics.
Related collected editions 
Spin-off trade paperback collections 
Several Spawn-related mini-series have been collected in TPB editions.
- "Angela" (later retitled "Spawn: Angela's Hunt") - contains Neil Gaiman's "Angela" issues 1-3 and the 2005 one-shot.
- "Spawn: The Undead" - collects "Spawn: The Undead' issues 1-9
- "Spawn: Godslayer Collection 1" - collects "Spawn: Godslayer" 1-6
- "Sam & Twitch Book 1: Udaku" - collects 1-8 of the "Sam and Twitch" spin off.
- "Sam & Twitch: The Brian Michael Bendis Collection 1" - collects issues 1-9
- "Sam & Twitch: The Brian Michael Bendis Collection 2" - collects issues 10-19
- "Violator vs. Badrock" - collects Alan Moore's crossover miniseries issues 1-4
Curse of the Spawn 
Most of the Curse of the Spawn spin-off series has been collected in TPB editions.
- "Curse of the Spawn: Book 1: Sacrifice of the Soul" - issues 1-4
- "Curse of the Spawn: Book 2: Blood and Sutures" - issues 5-8
- "Curse of the Spawn: Book 3: Shades of Grey" - issues 9-11, 29
- "Curse of the Spawn: Book 4: Lost Values" - issues 12-14, 22
- "The Best of Curse of the Spawn" - contains issues 1-8, 12-16 and 20-29 without the coloring
In other media 
- Spawn made his animated debut in the HBO miniseries Todd McFarlane's Spawn in which Spawn is voiced by Keith David. The series won two Emmys (one in 1998 and another in 1999) and two Golden Reel Awards (1998/1999). A new animated series, unrelated to the first, is currently in the works.
- Spawn appeared in the Robot Chicken episode "Celebutard Mountain" voiced by Adam Talbot.
- In The Powerpuff Girls episode "Super Zeroes", the main characters appear as superheroines that parody different comic book characters. Buttercup appears in a likeness of Spawn, the character being known as "Spore" in their universe. Her appearance is dark with a large cape and green eyes, and she gives herself the name "Mange". Even a parody of Malebolgia appears, giving her powers.
- A villain who appeared in the show World of Quest named General Ogun has a strong resemblance to Spawn.
- In 1997, a film adaptation had Michael Jai White as Spawn. The making of a second film has been discussed.
- In the 1999 film Dogma, one of the Stygian triplets wears a Spawn t-shirt.
- Issue #1 of Spawn can be seen in the background in Chasing Amy.
- In Live Free or Die Hard, John McClane picks up and damages a Spawn action figure.
- In the 2008 remake of The Day the Earth Stood Still there is a Medieval Spawn action figure, along with a few other Spawn toys, in Jacob's room.
- In the 2009 film Orphan, the little boy Daniel Coleman is shooting down Spawn action figures, namely an Omega Squadron figure, amongst others, with a paintball gun.
Video games 
Spawn has starred in several video games:
- Todd McFarlane's Spawn: The Video Game (1995) (SNES)
- Spawn: The Eternal (1997) (PlayStation)
- Spawn (1999) (Game Boy Color)
- Spawn: In the Demon's Hand (1999, 2000) (Dreamcast, Arcade)
- Spawn: Armageddon (2003) (Xbox, PlayStation 2, and Nintendo GameCube)
- Spawn appeared as a special guest in the Xbox version of Soulcalibur II (2003). McFarlane also created the character Necrid.
- At the time of the release of the live action movie, Spawn appeared in several commercials for Taco Bell.
- The Dark Saga by Iced Earth is a concept album based upon the Spawn story. The cover of the album, by Greg Capullo and Todd McFarlane, depicts Spawn himself, though due to legal issues, Iced Earth could not use the names of the characters in the songs.
See also 
- "IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes: (40-21)". IGN. May 5, 2011
- Miller, John Jackson. "X-Men #1, One Piece, and world records", The Comics Chronicles, November 16, 2010.
- Rossen, Jake (May 2008). "50 Events That Rocked Comics". Wizard Magazine #200. More than one of
- "Wizard Market Watch". Wizard (22). June 1993. pp. 134–5.
- "Todd McFarlane - Complete Biography". Spawn.com. Retrieved 2008-03-07.
- "Top 300 Comics Actual—January 2008". icv2.com. Retrieved 2008-03-07.
- "McFarlane-Portacio Spawn Sells Out". Newsarama.com. Retrieved 2009-12-29.
- "Comic Book Sales Figures for April 2009". Newsarama.com. Retrieved 2009-12-29.
- "Spawn #200 Sells Out in One Day - Comic Book Resources". Comicbookresources.com. Retrieved 2011-01-13.
- "Spawn #200 - Review". IGN.com. Retrieved 2011-01-12.
- "Points of Articulation: KIMOTA! Neil Gaiman vs. Todd McFarlane". OAFEnet. 2003-07-17.
- "Points of Articulation: KIMOTA! Neil Gaiman vs. Todd McFarlane, part 2". OAFEnet. 2004-09-01.
- "Comic Wire - 6-14-2001". Comic Book Resources. 2001-06-14.
- CBC Arts (2004-12-20). "Todd McFarlane Productions files for bankruptcy". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2007-07-13.
- Appeals court upholds $15M verdict for Twist
- [Exclusive!] Mcfarlane Reunites With 'Spawn' : Comics[dead link]
- "Top 100 Graphic Novels Actual—December 2005". icv2.com. Retrieved 2008-03-06.
- "Awards for "Spawn"". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2007-08-23.
- "Spawn Animated Series Coming Back to Life". TMP International/ Spawn.com. 2004-05-12. Retrieved 2007-08-23.
- Varanini, Giancarlo (2003-01-14). "Link, Spawn, Heihachi confirmed for Soul Calibur II". GameSpot. Retrieved 2007-07-31.
- "The Dark Saga". Iced Earth. Retrieved 2007-07-13.
- Official website
- Spawn at the Comic Book DB
- Spawn at the Internet Movie Database
- Spawn at the Open Directory Project
- SpawnWorld - Unofficial Spawn comic and toys guide and encyclopedia
- Spawn (1992-Present), ComicsInventory.com
- Stashmatic.com - Spawn Collection Tracker online database (with images)
- "'Spawn' featured in Myspace comic books". Comic Book Resources.
- Interview with Todd McFarlane about the animated series, Now Playing Magazine
- "A Hell of a Comic: David Hine Talks "Spawn"". Comic Book Resources.
- Todd McFarlane Interview, UGO.com comics
- "Greg Capullo: Exclusive Interview", Spawn.com
- "Khary Randolph: Interview", Spawn.com
- "New Artists and a New Direction", Spawn.com
- Interview by IGN-David Hine talks about the new direction for the series and the state of Marvel's decimated mutants.
- "Spawn's New Team-A Terrific Trifecta". Comic Book Resources.
- "David Hine on Spawn's New Look, New World, New Mission". Newsarama.
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