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The Queen's Christmas Message (or King's Christmas Message in the reign of a male monarch) is a broadcast made by the sovereign of the Commonwealth realms to the Commonwealth of Nations each Christmas. The tradition began in 1932 with a radio broadcast by George V on the British Broadcasting Corporation Empire Service. Today, the message is read by Elizabeth II and broadcast on television, radio, and the Internet via various providers.
The idea for a Christmas message from the sovereign to the British Empire was proposed by the "founding father" of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), Sir John Reith, as a way to inaugurate the Empire Service (now the World Service). That year, George V read the first Royal Christmas Message; the King was originally hesitant about using the relatively untested medium of radio, but was reassured after a summertime visit to the BBC and agreed to carry out the concept and read the speech from a temporary studio set up at Sandringham House. The broadcast was introduced from Ilmington Manor by 65-year-old Walton Handy, a local shepherd, with carols from the church choir and the bells ringing from the town church, and reached an estimated 20 million people in Australia, Canada, India, Kenya, South Africa, and the UK.
While his brother, Edward VIII abdicated just before his first Christmas as king, George VI continued his father's Christmas broadcasts; it was in his reading delivered in the opening stages of the Second World War that he uttered the famous lines: "I said to the man who stood at the Gate of the Year."
George's daughter, Elizabeth II, gave her first Christmas message to the Commonwealth of Nations from her study at Sandringham House, at 3:07 PM on 25 December 1952, some 11 months after her father's death. By 1957, the broadcast became televised, and, from then until 1996, was produced by the BBC; only in 1969 was no message given because a special documentary film - Royal Family - had been made during the summer in connection with the Investiture of the Prince of Wales. It was therefore decided not to do a broadcast at Christmas, but The Queen issued a written message instead.
The Queen ended this monopoly, however, announcing that the message would, from 1997, be produced and broadcast alternately by the BBC and its main rival, Independent Television News (ITN), with a biennial rotation. It was reported by The Daily Telegraph that this decision was made after the BBC decided to screen an interview with Diana, Princess of Wales, on its current affairs programme Panorama. This was denied by Buckingham Palace which said the new arrangements "reflect the composition of the television and radio industries today". Beginning in 2011, Sky News was added to the rotation.
Sky News recorded the Queen's Christmas message for Christmas 2012, the Queen's Diamond Jubilee year, and for the first time it has been recorded in 3D. Buckingham Palace are reported to have explained: "We wanted to do something a bit different and special in this Jubilee year, so doing it for the first time in 3D seemed a good thing, technology wise, to do."
The message typically combines a chronicle of that year's major events, with specific focus on the British Empire originally and later the Commonwealth of Nations, with the sovereign's own personal milestones and feelings on Christmas. It is one of the few instances when the sovereign speaks publicly without advice from any ministers of the Crown in any of the monarch's realms. Planning for each year's address begins months earlier, when the monarch establishes a theme and appropriate archival footage is collected and assembled; the actual speech is recorded a few days prior to Christmas.
In the United Kingdom and on the Internet, broadcast of the Queen's Christmas message is embargoed until 3:00 PM GMT. In other parts of the Commonwealth, the message is first broadcast in New Zealand at 6:50 PM local time by Television New Zealand, in Australia by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation at 7:20 PM local time, and in Canada by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation at 10 AM Eastern Standard Time.
|George V||1932||BBC||Written by Rudyard Kipling, the speech touched on the advance of technology that permitted the King to deliver an intimate message to all parts of the world, as well as mentioning the need for work towards peace and counselling listeners to aim for "prosperity without self-seeking."|
|1935||The speech mentioned the King's 25th anniversary of his accession and his place as a personal link between his peoples, as well as the marriage of his son, The Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, and the death of his sister, The Princess Victoria.|
|George VI||1936||No Christmas message was broadcast this year as Edward VIII abdicated the throne just weeks prior to Christmas.|
|1937||In his first broadcast as king, the King thanked the Empire for its support during his first year on the throne.|
|1938||No message was delivered.|
|1939||The outbreak of the Second World War firmly established the Royal Christmas Message; the King spoke live from Sandringham House to offer a message of reassurance, and used a portion of the poem God Knows by Minnie Louise Haskins.|
|George VI||1941||BBC||The King focused on our "one great family," stating: "[it is] in serving each other and in sacrificing for our common good that we are finding our true life."|
|1942||The King focused on "the family circle".|
|1945||The King focused on "the family of the British Commonwealth and Empire," saying: "Wherever you are, serving in our wide, free Commonwealth of Nations, you will always feel at home. Though severed by the long sea miles of distance, you are still in the family circle."|
|1946||The King reviewed the privations of the war years, the difficulties of postwar adjustment, and added words of encouragement to his subjects.|
|1949||The King reassured people of his recovery from illness and expressed his gratitude to the United States of America for its sympathy and help in Britain's effort towards recovery; at the time, Britain was the largest beneficiary of the Marshall Plan.|
|George VI||1951||BBC||George VI's final Christmas message was the only broadcast that he pre-recorded, because of illness. He spoke of his recovery and the goodwill messages he had received: "From my peoples in these islands and in the British Commonwealth and Empire – as well as from many other countries – this support and sympathy has reached me and I thank you now from my heart..."|
|Elizabeth II||1952||In her first Christmas message, from the same desk and chair used by her father and grandfather before her, the Queen spoke of carrying on the tradition passed on to her. This message, and the ones until 1957, were also broadcast in sound only on television in the United Kingdom.|
|1953||This message was broadcast from Auckland, New Zealand, during the Queen's 1953-1954 royal tour of the Commonwealth. Her Majesty finished her broadcast with a note of sympathy to those affected by the Tangiwai disaster the night before.|
|1954||The Queen broadcast this message from Sandringham House at the end of a year in which she and her husband, The Duke of Edinburgh, had travelled around the world.|
|1955||Broadcast live from her study at Sandringham House, the Queen's theme was the opportunities arising from membership of the Commonwealth of Nations. With the launch of ITV in the UK, the sound-only television broadcast was simulcast on both ITV and the BBC Television Service from this year on.|
|1956||The Duke of Edinburgh spoke from HMY Britannia during a voyage around the Commonwealth before the Queen made her speech live from Sandringham House.|
|1957||This year's message, read from the Long Library at Sandringham House, was the first to be televised and was also the 25th anniversary of the first Christmas broadcast on radio. The Queen noted the milestone and the advance of technology that allowed her message to be viewed in her subject's homes. She added that while change might be bewildering, it is important to hold on to ageless ideals and values such as the importance of religion, morality, honesty and self-restraint and spoke of the need for courage to stand up for what is right, true and honest. During this season freak radio conditions caused by sunspots resulted in American police radio transmissions interfering with British television broadcasts. One occasion of interference occurred during the Queen's speech causing listeners to hear an American police officer say "Joe, I'm gonna grab a quick coffee."|
|1958||The reading, coming from the Long Library at Sandringham House, focused on the importance of spiritual and family values and some of the journeys soon to be made around the Commonwealth by the Queen and members of the Royal Family. The Queen also responded to requests that her children be shown in the broadcast by saying that after a great deal of thought she and her husband decided against it as they want their children to grow up as naturally as possible.|
|1959||The Queen pre-recorded this Christmas message as she was pregnant with her third child, The Prince Andrew, who was born the following February. The message lasted about one minute and conveyed the Queen's best wishes and her gratitude for the warm wishes she had received.|
|Elizabeth II||1960||BBC||The Queen spoke from Buckingham Palace and described an eventful year in which she gave birth to The Prince Andrew; her sister, The Princess Margaret, married Anthony Armstrong-Jones; and Nigeria gained its independence while remaining part of the Commonwealth. The disasters to which The Queen alluded included that year's earthquake in Morocco; the deaths of protesters in Sharpeville, South Africa; and an explosion in Six Bells Colliery near Aberbeeg, Monmouthshire.|
|1961||The Queen mentioned her six-week tour of India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Iran, as well as her visit to Vatican City.|
|1962||The speech from Buckingham Palace referred to recent successes in space, including the launch of Telstar, which made it possible to broadcast television, images, and news around the world almost instantly.|
|1963||The Queen reverted to a message delivered by radio, as she was pregnant with her fourth child, The Prince Edward. She spoke of the importance of the campaign to free the world from hunger and the Commonwealth's response and spoke of the hope and promise of the future and the need for humanity to be ambitious for the achievement of what is good and honourable.|
|1964||Elizabeth addressed the important role of the Commonwealth in a year in which anti-apartheid leader Nelson Mandela was jailed in apartheid South Africa and Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru died.|
|1965||The address from Buckingham Palace took as its theme the family, from the individual unit to the family of man.|
|1966||The Queen spoke about the increasingly prominent and important role played by women in society. This year saw the Aberfan disaster, in which 144 people were killed after the collapse of a colliery spoil tip onto the Welsh village of Aberfan.|
|1967||Elizabeth spoke of Canada's centenary of its confederation and her five weeks tour of the country to mark the event, and also mentioned her knighting of Sir Francis Chichester. The message, filmed at Buckingham Palace, was the first to be shown in colour.|
|1968||This year's Christmas message, which came from Buckingham Palace and had a theme of brotherhood, included mention of civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination.|
|1969||None||No Christmas address was given by the Queen, as Elizabeth felt that, between the investiture of her son, The Prince Charles, as Prince of Wales and the release of the documentary Royal Family, she had had enough coverage on television; concern expressed by the public prompted Her Majesty to issue a statement that assured a return to tradition in 1970. The Queen's written message acknowledged the end of the 1960s and the decade's significance for being the time when men first walked on the moon. She also stated that she was looking forward to her visit the next year to Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Tonga and northern Canada. She also expressed her concern that "the lonely, the sick and the elderly" all feel the warmth and companionship of Christmas.|
|Elizabeth II||1970||BBC||Once again televised, the speech recounted some of the trips made by the Queen during the year; it included film shot in Australia, New Zealand and Canada.|
|1971||Focusing on the theme of families, the television version showed The Prince Andrew and The Prince Edward looking at a family photograph album.|
|1972||The production included scenes from the celebration of the Queen's 25 years of marriage to The Duke of Edinburgh and Elizabeth mentioned the violence in Northern Ireland, as well as the preparations for Britain to join the European Economic Community.|
|1973||Interspersed with footage of the Queen giving her oration was film shot during the wedding of the Queen's daughter, The Princess Anne, to Capt Mark Phillips.|
|1974||In a more sombre tone, the Christmas message alluded to problems such as the continuing violence in Northern Ireland and the Middle East, that year's famine in Bangladesh, and the floods in Brisbane, Australia.|
|1975||Broadcast from the gardens of Buckingham Palace, it was the first time the message had been recorded outdoors, and acknowledged a year of record inflation and unemployment in the UK and worldwide.|
|1976||To mark the United States Bicentennial, the Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh undertook a state visit to the United States of America; that visit, and the theme of reconciliation after disagreements, formed the focus of the message.|
|1977||The Queen recalled the year's celebrations for her Silver Jubilee, and expressed hope for reconciliation in Northern Ireland, where she had visited in August for the first time in 11 years.|
|1978||The future was the subject selected by the Queen, with the broadcast including footage of Her Majesty with her new grandson, Peter Phillips, and The Princess Anne, as well as recordings of earlier broadcasts going back to George V.|
|1979||1979 was the Year of the Child, and the Christmas message addressed the theme of children and young people. It was a year that saw hundreds of thousands of refugees fleeing Cambodia following the disastrous rule of the Khmer Rouge, as well as the assassination of The Earl Mountbatten of Burma by the Provisional Irish Republican Army. In this broadcast, Ceefax was used for the first time providing subtitles for the hard of hearing.|
|Elizabeth II||1980||BBC||The message, which attracted a record 28 million viewers in the United Kingdom, reflected on celebrations for the 80th birthday of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, and addressed the theme of service in its many forms.|
|1981||The speech was broadcast from the terrace behind Buckingham Palace and marked the International Year of Disabled Persons, in which the courage and needs of the disabled came to prominence.|
|1982||Marking the 50th anniversary of the first Christmas message, the Queen delivered this year's at the library of Windsor Castle, for the first time. The theme was "the sea", in a year in which British troops fought in the Falklands War in the South Atlantic Ocean. The Queen's grandchild Prince William was born during this year.|
|1983||At the beginning of the electronic age, the Christmas oration discussed new possibilities for co-operation within the Commonwealth of Nations permitted by modern technologies. The Queen mentioned a visit to Bangladesh and India that year, in which Her Majesty met Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, invested Mother Teresa into the Order of Merit, and attended the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in New Delhi.|
|1984||The message was the lessons which adults could learn from children, with film featuring the christening of the Queen's fourth grandchild, Prince Harry.|
|1985||The Queen spoke of the earthquake that struck Mexico City, the volcanic eruption in Colombia, famine in Africa, and the Air India crash off the coast of Ireland, though the message focused on the good news stories of the year, as the Queen praised remarkable public achievements to footage of investitures and the presentation of awards.|
|1986||David Attenborough, as he would until 1991, produced the Christmas message broadcast, which in 1986 was filmed in the Royal Mews at Buckingham Palace and stressed society's responsibility towards children.|
|1987||The Queen mentioned the Remembrance Day bombing in Enniskillen, Northern Ireland, and stressed the importance of tolerance and forgiveness.|
|1988||Along with added references to the Clapham Junction rail crash, the Lockerbie disaster, and the Armenian earthquake that all occurred after the main broadcast was recorded, the Queen reflected on three important anniversaries: the 400th of the Spanish Armada, the 300th of the arrival in Britain of the future William III and Mary II, and the 200th of the founding of Australia.|
|1989||The Queen read part of her Christmas speech from a podium on the stage at the Royal Albert Hall, recorded at a special gala occasion held there, meaning that, for the first time, an audience heard the speech prior to its international airing.|
|Elizabeth II||1990||BBC||Elizabeth paid tribute to the role of the armed services in the context of imminent war in the Persian Gulf.|
|1991||The message reflected on the enormous changes taking place across Eastern Europe and Russia, which included the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and the importance of democratic traditions.|
|1992||The Christmas speech came one month after fire destroyed part of Windsor Castle; the Queen addressed the importance of personal fortitude, as embodied by members of the armed services undertaking difficult peacekeeping duties, and Leonard Cheshire, who died that year. The speech was leaked to The Sun prior to broadcast.|
|1993||The Queen praised the achievements of volunteers working for peace and the relief of others.|
|1994||Reflecting on past and present peace efforts, Elizabeth remarked on her attendance at the ceremonies marking the 50th anniversary of the Normandy Landings and her state visit to Russia.|
|1995||Beginning with a reminder of the 50th anniversary of VE-Day and VJ-Day, the Queen stated that remembrance was an important part of life, and paid tribute to those who had served and those who had not returned. She then turned to present-day conflicts, such as the Bosnian War, in which Commonwealth forces were serving, to the full year of peace in Northern Ireland, and referred to her Buckingham Palace invitation to voluntary workers working throughout the world. The work of Sister Ethel, a nun helping children in the townships of South Africa, was picked out by Elizabeth, who ended by paying tribute to peacemakers throughout the world.|
|1996||The Queen spoke of her trips to Poland, the Czech Republic, and Thailand, as well as the visit to the UK by South African President Nelson Mandela, with an overall theme of hope for the future.|
|1997||ITN||The first Christmas message produced by Independent Television News, as well as the first to be published on the Internet, it opened with contrasting pictures of Westminster Abbey, which the Queen reminded viewers had that year been the scene of the funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales, as well as the celebration of Elizabeth's golden wedding anniversary, speaking of the joy of her married life. The Queen then reminded viewers of her trips to Canada, India, and Pakistan, and of the return of Hong Kong to China, before paying tribute to that year's Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. In conclusion, the Queen welcomed the imminent devolution of power to Scotland and Wales, and spoke of the benefits of being a United Kingdom.|
|1998||The message focused on lessons that could be learnt by different generations from each other, and the broadcast included film of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, visiting the Field of Remembrance at Westminster Abbey, the Queen at Ypres and in Paris, and the reception for the Prince of Wales' 50th birthday.|
|1999||BBC||The Queen expressed her looking forward to the start of a new century and a new millennium, as well as at the lessons of history. The broadcast, filmed in the White Drawing Room of Windsor Castle, featured footage of a reception for young achievers at Holyrood Palace, and a reception for members of the emergency services at Buckingham Palace.|
|Elizabeth II||2000||BBC||The Queen used her Christmas broadcast to reflect on the true start of the new millennium and the role of faith in communities. The broadcast included film of that year's visit to Australia.|
|2001||ITN||Elizabeth, in this speech which she described as "my 50th Christmas message to you," (her 1969 messaage was in writing and not broadcast) referred to the unusual number of trials and disasters that year, alluding to the foot-and-mouth disease outbreak and the 11 September attacks; viewers saw the occasion when the American national anthem was played at the changing of the guard. Her Majesty then spoke of the importance of faith when drawing strength in troubled times, and paid tribute to those who work for others in the community.|
|2002||In her 50th Christmas broadcast, the Queen spoke on the themes of joy and sadness, reflecting on her "personal loss" following the deaths of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and Princess Margaret that year and the comfort she received from her faith and the tributes of others. Her message was delivered from the White Drawing Room of Buckingham Palace, with photographs of the Queen Mother, King George VI and Princess Margaret by her side. She recalled the joyous celebration of her Golden Jubilee with excerpts being shown along with the sombre Bali memorial service at St Paul's Cathedral in London. She spoke of reliance on the twin pillars of the "message of hope" in the Christian gospel and the support of the public.|
|2003||BBC||The opening of this message was recorded at the Household Cavalry barracks in Windsor. With many members of Commonwealth armed forces on foreign deployments, the Queen encouraged the audience, which included 10 million in the UK, to think of those not with their families at Christmas, and paid tribute to the work they had done to bring peace. She also spoke of the importance of teamwork and of what she had learned when presenting the new Queen's Golden Jubilee Award for Voluntary Service in the Community.|
|2004||Opening with footage of the Queen handing out presents to her own family, and interlaced with coverage of the Queen, the Duke of Edinburgh, and the Prince of Wales attending various multicultural meetings, the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh visiting a Sikh gurudwara and the Prince of Wales visiting a Muslim school in east London, the theme of the message was cultural and religious diversity and the benefits of tolerance. The message was warmly received by leaders of Britain's Muslim ans Sikh communities, though also denounced by Stuart Millson in Right Now! In a break from tradition, the Queen also sent a separate radio Christmas message to UK troops, which was broadcast by the British Forces Broadcasting Service.|
|2005||ITN||The Queen reflecting on such tragedies as the Indian Ocean tsunami, Hurricane Katrina, the earthquake in Kashmir, and the bombings in London; she praised as "quite remarkable" the humanitarian responses from people of all faiths. Although the message was on the whole well received, there was comment in UK national newspapers on the absence of any mention of the wedding of The Prince of Wales and Camilla Parker Bowles, with some[who?] describing it as a "snub".|
|2006||The speech, available for the first time for download as a podcast, was about the relationship between the generations and how young and old could come together to strengthen their communities, with strong references to the inclusion of Muslims and other faiths into mainstream society.|
|2007||BBC||The 2007 message began with the introductory remarks from the 1957 Christmas message shown on a television and the Queen standing beside it. The theme centred on the family, including Jesus' birth into a family under unfavourable circumstances, and the Queen spoke about the common duty to care for the vulnerable in society. Footage of the Royal Marines in the war in Afghanistan, as well as a military memorial, were shown, accompanied by commentary about the work of troops in Iraq and Afghanistan. The message ended with a black and white clip of "God Save the Queen" from the original 1957 broadcast and an image of the British royal standard.|
|2008||The Queen acknowledged that concerns about the 2008 economic downturn as well as violence around the world have made that year's Christmas "a more sombre occasion for many" and called on people to show courage and not accept defeat and instead struggle for a better future. She also reflected on the 60th birthday of the Prince of Wales and his charitable works and paid tribute to those who lead charitable lives in the service of others. This was the first message broadcast in high-definition.|
|2009||ITN||The Queen reflected on the role of Commonwealth armed forces serving in Afghanistan.|
|Elizabeth II||2010||ITN||The Queen focused on the importance of the King James Bible (400 years old in 2011) as a unifying force and of sport in building communities and creating harmony. The Christmas message included footage of Prince William and Prince Harry playing football with orphans in Lesotho. Rather than being recorded at Buckingham Palace as is normally the case, for the first time the Christmas message was filmed in Hampton Court Palace.|
|2011||Sky||Unity and hope in the face of adversity and the importance of family were the themes of this year's broadcast with royal tours, the Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton, the wedding of Zara Phillips and the differences between the two, and the Commonwealth also being touched upon in those two contexts, respectively. The message was recorded prior to the hospitalisation of Prince Philip for emergency heart surgery. This was the first Christmas message produced by Sky News.|
|2012||Broadcast for the first time in 3D.|
Similar messages elsewhere 
The Pope delivers a Christmas message to the world and leaders of other countries have adopted the tradition of a message at Christmas, including the King of Sweden, the Queen of the Netherlands, the King of the Belgians, the President of Germany, and the King of Spain.
Others have modified the practice by issuing a statement to coincide with the New Year; this is done by the Governors-General of Canada and New Zealand, the Queen of Denmark, the King of Thailand, the Presidents of Finland, France, Hungary, Russian Federation, the President of the People's Republic of China, and Italy, as well as the Chancellor of Germany (the Archbishop of Canterbury also gives a New Year's Day speech). The Prime Minister of Malaysia also makes his speech not only on this occasion but also on the night of Hari Raya Aidilfitri and on the eve of its independence day. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong also makes his speech on his birthday in June and on National Heroes Day in July. The Prime Minister of Singapore gives his speech on this occasion and on the National Day of Singapore. In the past, the Governor of Hong Kong, as the representative of the British monarch, played this role; the tradition was carried on by the Chief Executive upon the territory's change of status into a Chinese dependency in 1997. Beginning in 1986, US President Ronald Reagan and Soviet Union president Mikhail Gorbachev exchanged televised New Year's Day addresses to the other's respective nations. This exchange continued between President George H. W. Bush and Gorbachev until the demise of the Soviet Union.
See also 
- The BBC Story, British Broadcasting Corporation, retrieved 30 December 2009
- Royal Household. "Images and Broadcasts > The Queen's Christmas Broadcasts > A history of Christmas Broadcasts". Queen's Printer. Retrieved 31 December 2009.
- Royal Household. "Christmas Broadcast 1939". Queen's Printer. Retrieved 3 December 2009.
- Admin ACO (29 December 2000). "Christmas Message to the Commonwealth from Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II". Anglican Communion News Service. Retrieved 30 December 2009.
- Hastings, Chris (29 January 2006), "Queen sacked us over Diana interview, says BBC", The Daily Telegraph (London), retrieved 30 December 2009
- "BBC News - Sky News to produce Queen's Christmas message". BBC Online. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- "Queen records Christmas message in 3D format". BBC News. BBC. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- Rose, Kenneth (1983). King George V. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. p. 394. ISBN 978-1-84212-001-9.
- Gore, John (13 June 2008). King George V: A Personal Memoir. London: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. p. 278. ISBN 978-1-4367-0170-9.
- "Queen's Christmas Broadcast Heard by 150 million". The Age (Melbourne). 26 December 1957. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- "Talkitive American Cops Interrupte Queen's English". Milwaukee Journal. 31 December 1957. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- "Family Values Important Says Queen". Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. 26 December 1958. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- "Queen's Christmas Message". Glasgow Herald. 26 December 1959. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- "The Queen - War on Hunger". Montreal Gazette. 26 December 1963. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- "Christmas Broadcast 1969". Official Website of the British Monarchy. The Royal Household.
- "The tradition of the Queen's speech". BBC. 30 December 1997. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
- "Queen reflects on joy and sadness". BBC News. 25 December 2002. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- "Queen to podcast Christmas speech". BBC News. 21 December 2006. Retrieved 3 December 2009.
- Falloon, Matt (25 December 2011). "Queen Elizabeth sees a sombre Christmas for many". Reuters. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
- "Queen focuses on sport in speech". BBC. 24 December 2010. Retrieved 24 December 2010.
- "Queen speaks of hope in 2011 Christmas Day message". BBC News. 25 December 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- "Queen's Christmas Message will be in 3D". Sky News. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
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