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Transport in Ghana is accomplished by road, rail, air and water. Ghana's transportation and communications networks are centered in the southern regions, especially the areas in which gold, cocoa, and timber are produced. The northern and central areas are connected through a major road system; some areas, however, remain relatively isolated.
The deterioration of the country's transportation and communications networks has been blamed for impeding the distribution of economic inputs and food as well as the transport of crucial exports. Consequently, the first priority of the ERP was to repair physical infrastructure. Under the program's first phase (1983–86), the government allocated US$1.5 billion, or 36 percent of total investment, for that purpose and an additional US$222 million in 1987 for road and rail rehabilitation. In 1991 the Ghanaian government allocated 27 percent of its budget for various road schemes.
Foreign donor support helped to increase the number of new vehicle registrations from 8,000 in 1984 to almost 20,000 in 1989. The distribution of vehicles was skewed, however, because, by 1988, more than half of all vehicles were in Accra, which contained approximately 7 percent of the country's population. Furthermore, most new vehicles are intended for private use rather than for hauling goods and people, a reflection of income disparities. Transportation is especially difficult in eastern regions, near the coast, and in the vast, underdeveloped northern regions, where vehicles are scarce. At any one time, moreover, a large percentage of intercity buses and Accra city buses are out of service.
The railway system in Ghana has historically been confined to the plains south of the barrier range on mountains north of the city of Kumasi. However, the 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) narrow gauge railway, totalling 935 kilometres, is presently undergoing major rehabilitation and inroads to the interior are now being made. In Ghana, most of the lines are single tracked, and in 1997 it was estimated that 32 kilometres were double tracked.
Rail expansion initiatives 
In 2005 the Minister of Ports, Harbours and Railways announced plans to extend the railway system to facilitate economic development. To begin, $5 million was sought from the African Development Bank (ADB) for feasibility studies. Possible projects at the time included extending a line from Ejisu to Nkoranza and Techiman; a line from Tamale to Bolgatanga and Paga to Burkina Faso; a line from Wenchi, Bole to Wa and Hamile and also to Burkina Faso, and a line to Yendi where there are iron ore deposits
In March 2007, a Private Public Partnership was proposed to rehabilitate the Eastern Railway from Accra to Ejisu and Kumasi, with an extension from Ejisu via Mampong, Nkoranza, Tamale, Bolgatanga and Paga, with a branch from Tamale to Yendi and Sheini. The extension starts at Kumasi and will cost $1.6b.
In February 2008 the Ghana General News reported that the Ministry of Harbours and Railways and the Ghana Railway Corporation (GRC) expected to complete a new commuter line linking Accra and Tema by June 2008. The formation was complete from Sakumono to the SSNIT flats near Tema. Diesel multiple-unit trainsets will be imported for use on the line. Construction of sleeper plant for the far north line was also initiated in 2008.
Service pending 
These towns are proposed to be served by rail:
- Paga - near Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast borders.
- Hamile - far northwest corner (Contracts were made for railway extensions in July 2007.)
- Boankra Inland Port (under construction)
Gauge conversion 
Road transport is by far the dominant carrier of freight and passengers in Ghana’s land transport system. It carries over 95% of all passenger and freight traffic and reaches most communities, including the rural poor and is classified under three categories of trunk roads, urban roads, and feeder roads. The Ghana Highway Authority, established in 1974 is tasked with developing and maintaining the country's trunk road network totaling 13,367 km, which makes up 33% of Ghana's total road network of 40,186 km.
Trunk roads in Ghana are classified as National roads, Regional roads, and Inter-regional roads, all of which form the Ghana road network. National roads, designated with the letter N, link all the major population centers in Ghana. Regional roads, designated with the letter R, are a mix of primary and secondary routes, which serve as feeder roads to National roads; while Inter-Regional roads, designated with the prefix IR, connect major settlements across regional borders. By virtue of National roads linking major cities in the country, they sometimes double as Regional and Inter-Regional roads. The R40, which connects Accra to Adenta through the Tetteh Quarshie Interchange, forms part of the N4 which links Accra to Koforidua and Kumasi through the Tetteh Quarshie Interchange.
With respect to this mode of transport, many people prefer to use the public means. Many of the town and cities in the country can be reached by the use of urvan buses known as "trotro" or taxis. For inter-regional transport bigger buses are normally used.
International highways 
The Trans–West African Coastal Highway, part of the Trans-African Highway network crosses Ghana along the N1, connecting it to Abidjan, (Ivory Coast), Lomé, (Togo) and to Benin and Nigeria. Eventually the highway will connect to another seven Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) nations to the west. The N2, which connects Tema in the Greater Accra Region to Kulungugu in the Upper East Region; the N10, which connects Yamoransa in the Central Region to Paga in the Upper East Region; and the N12, which connects Elubo in the Western Region to Hamile in the Upper West Region; all connect Ghana to landlocked Burkina Faso, where it joins another highway in the Trans-African network, the Trans-Sahelian Highway.
Ferries and waterways 
Marine transport 
Seaports and harbors 
Merchant marine 
There are six ships (with a volume of 1,000 gross register tons (GRT) or over) totaling 13,484 GRT/18,583 metric tons deadweight (DWT). This includes two petroleum tankers and four refrigerated cargo vessels (1999 estimates).
On July 4, 1958, the Ghanaian government established Ghana Airways to replace the operations of the West African Airways Corporation within Ghana and connecting Ghana with other countries. By the mid-1990s, Ghana Airways operated international scheduled passenger and cargo service to numerous European, Middle Eastern, and African destinations, including London, Düsseldorf, Rome, Abidjan, Dakar, Lagos, Lomé, and Johannesburg. As a result of persistent management and financial problems, Ghana Airways ceased all operations and entered into liquidation in 2004.
In 2005, Ghana International Airlines (GIA) began services as the new national airline of Ghana. GIA operated Boeing 757 and Boeing 767 aircraft under wet lease arrangements with other airlines, and connected Kotoka International Airport in Accra with London Gatwick and Düsseldorf. However, after several years GIA also ceased operations, and at present there exists no Ghanaian airline providing long-haul international services.
Ghana has twelve airports, six with hard surfaced runways. The most important are Kotoka International Airport at Accra and airports at Sekondi-Takoradi, Kumasi, and Tamale that serve domestic air traffic. In 1990, the government spent US$12 million to improve Accra's facilities. Workmen resurfaced the runway, upgraded the lighting system and built a new freight terminal. Construction crews also extended and upgraded the terminal building at Kumasi. In early 1991, the government announced further plans to improve Accra's international airport. The main runway was upgraded, improvements were made in freight landing and infrastructure, and the terminal building and the airport's navigational aids were upgraded.
There are also some commercial airlines running domestic flights between the major cities in Ghana.
Airports - with paved runways 
Kotoka International Airport
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1999 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways 
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 2
See also 
- Clark, Nancy L. "Transportation and Telecommunications". gov/frd/cs/ghtoc.html A Country Study: Ghana (La Verle Berry, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (November 1994). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. gov/frd/cs/about.html
- Korean rail study visit, August 2006
- Kampac to build extension
- GhanaNewsToday.Com: For All The News On Ghana From Ghana
- Rail Gazette International September 2007 p. 523
- Railways Africa - ACCRA-TEMA ON TRACK
- Shirley's Studio: Korean rail engineers head to Ghana
- Ghana News :: Trains go North ::: Breaking News | News in Ghana | news
- The Statesman : Special Reports : The transformation of Ghana's rail
- National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): UAE group signs Ghana rail deal
- Clark, Nancy L. "Civil Aviation". A Country Study: Ghana (La Verle Berry, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (November 1994). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.