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A walnut is an edible seed of any tree of the genus Juglans, especially the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia. Broken nutmeats of the eastern black walnut from the tree Juglans nigra are also commercially available in tiny/small quantities, as are foods prepared with butternut nutmeats from Juglans cinerea.
Walnut seeds are a high density source of nutrients, particularly proteins and essential fatty acids. Walnuts, like other tree nuts, must be processed and stored properly. Poor storage makes walnuts susceptible to insect and fungal mold infestations; the latter produces aflatoxin—a potent carcinogen. A mold infested walnut seed batch should not be screened and then consumed; the entire batch should be discarded.
Walnuts are rounded, single-seeded stone fruits of the walnut tree. The walnut fruit is enclosed in a green, leathery, fleshy husk. This husk is inedible. After harvest, the removal of the husk reveals the wrinkly walnut shell, which is in two halves. This shell is hard and encloses the kernel, which is also made up of two halves separated by a partition. The seed kernels — commonly available as shelled walnuts — are enclosed in a brown seed coat which contains antioxidants. The antioxidants protect the oil-rich seed from atmospheric oxygen thereby preventing rancidity.
The two most common major species of walnuts are grown for their seeds — the Persian or English Walnut and the Black Walnut. The English Walnut (J. regia) originated in Persia, and the Black Walnut (J. nigra) is native to eastern North America. The Black walnut is of high flavor, but due to its hard shell and poor hulling characteristics it is not grown commercially for nut production. The commercially produced walnut varieties are nearly all hybrids of the English walnut.
Other species include J. californica, the California Black Walnut (often used as a root stock for commercial breeding of J. regia), J. cinerea (butternuts), and J. major, the Arizona Walnut.
Walnuts are late to grow leaves, typically not until more than halfway through the spring. They also secrete chemicals into the soil to prevent competing vegetation from growing. Because of this, flowers or vegetable gardens should not be planted too close to them.
The husks of walnut contains a juice that will readily stain anything it comes into contact with. It has been used as a dye for cloth.
The worldwide production of walnut seeds has been increasing rapidly in recent years, with the largest increase coming from Asia. The world produced a total of 2.55 million metric tonnes of walnut seeds in 2010; China was the world's largest producer of walnut seeds, with a total harvest of 1.06 million metric tonnes. The other major producers of walnut seeds were (in the order of decreasing harvest): United States, Iran, Turkey, Ukraine, Mexico, Romania, India, France and Chile.
The average worldwide walnut seed yield was about 3 metric tonnes per hectare, in 2010. Among the major producers, eastern European countries have the highest yield. According to the FAO, the most productive walnut seed farms in 2010 were in Romania, with yields above 23 metric tonnes per hectare.
The ideal temperature for longest possible storage of walnut seeds is in the -3 to 0 oC and low humidity — for industrial and home storage. However, such refrigeration technologies are unavailable in developing countries where walnuts are produced in large quantities; there, walnut seeds are best stored below 25 oC and low humidity. Temperatures above 30 oC, and humidities above 70 percent can lead to rapid and high spoilage losses. Above 75 percent humidity threshold, fungal molds that release dangerous aflatoxin can form.
Freshly harvested raw walnut seeds with water content between 2 to 8 percent offer the best color, flavor and nutrient density.
Nutritional value 
|Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia|
|Nutritional value per serving|
|Serving size||100 grams|
|Energy||2,738 kJ (654 kcal)|
|- Dietary fiber||6.7|
|Vitamin A equiv.||1 μg (0%)|
|Vitamin A||20 IU|
|- beta-carotene||12 μg (0%)|
|- lutein and zeaxanthin||9 μg|
|Thiamine (vit. B1)||0.341 mg (30%)|
|Riboflavin (vit. B2)||0.15 mg (13%)|
|Niacin (vit. B3)||1.125 mg (8%)|
|Pantothenic acid (B5)||0.570 mg (11%)|
|Vitamin B6||0.537 mg (41%)|
|Folate (vit. B9)||98 μg (25%)|
|Vitamin B12||0 μg (0%)|
|Vitamin C||1.3 mg (2%)|
|Vitamin D||0 μg (0%)|
|Vitamin D||0 IU (0%)|
|Vitamin E||0.7 mg (5%)|
|Vitamin K||2.7 μg (3%)|
|Calcium||98 mg (10%)|
|Iron||2.91 mg (22%)|
|Magnesium||158 mg (45%)|
|Manganese||3.414 mg (163%)|
|Phosphorus||346 mg (49%)|
|Potassium||441 mg (9%)|
|Sodium||2 mg (0%)|
|Zinc||3.09 mg (33%)|
|Percentages are relative to
US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
While English walnut is the predominant commercially distributed nut because of the ease of its processing, its nutrient density and profile is significantly different from black walnut. The table below compares some of the major nutrients between English and Black walnuts.
|Nutrient (per 100 gram)||English walnut seed||Black walnut seed|
|Unsaturated fatty acids (g)||56.1||50.1|
|Poly to mono unsaturated
fatty acids ratio
|Vitamin B-6 (mg)||0.54||0.58|
Unlike most nuts that are high in monounsaturated fatty acids, walnut oil is composed largely of polyunsaturated fatty acids (47.2 grams), particularly alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n - 3; 9.1 gram) and linoleic acid (18:2n - 6; 38.1 gram). The beneficial effects of this unique fatty acid profile have been a subject of many studies and discussions. Banel and Hu concluded in 2009 that while walnut-enhanced diets are promising in short term studies, longer term studies are needed to ascertain better insights.
Medical benefits and claims 
Raw walnuts contain glyceryl triacylates of the n-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which is not as effective in humans as long-chain n-3 fatty acids, and (mostly insoluble) antioxidants. Roasting reduces antioxidant quality. In 2010, a report published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition said that walnuts and walnut oil improve reaction to stress.
A study has suggested that consumption of walnuts increases fat oxidation and reduces carbohydrate oxidation without affecting total consumption, suggesting that walnut consumption may improve the use of body fat in overweight adults. Walnuts have been shown to decrease the endothelial dysfunction associated with a high-fat meal. Aged rats fed diets containing 2% to 6% walnuts showed reversal of age-associated motor and cognitive function, but a 9% walnut diet impaired performance, suggesting a J curve.
On October 11, 2006, ScienceDaily published a report which stated "New research shows that consuming a handful of raw walnuts along with meals high in saturated fat appears to limit the ability of the harmful fat to damage arteries," and attributed the result to a 2006 article in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. The lead researcher, Emilio Ros, MD, PhD, was quoted as saying "People would get the wrong message if they think that they can continue eating unhealthy fats provided they add walnuts to their meals." Funding for the study was provided by the California Walnut Commission, an industry marketing agency.
Medicinal uses 
Scientists are not yet certain whether walnuts act as a cancer chemopreventive agent, an effect which may be a result of the fruit's high phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and potent in vitro antiproliferative activity.
Compared to certain other nuts, such as almonds, peanuts and hazelnuts, walnuts (especially in their raw form) contain the highest total level of antioxidants, including both free antioxidants and antioxidants bound to fiber.
Chemical analysis 
To remove the husk from kernel can lead to hand staining. Walnut hulls contain phenolics that stain hands and can cause skin irritation. Seven phenolic compounds (ferulic acid, vanillic acid, coumaric acid, syringic acid, myricetin, juglone and regiolone) have been identified in walnut husks by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography or crystallography.
Investment in China 
In China, pairs of walnuts have traditionally been rotated and played with in the palm of the hand, both as a means to stimulate blood circulation and as a status symbol. Pairs of large, old and symmetrically shaped walnuts are valued highly and have recently been used as an investment, with some of them fetching tens of thousands of dollars. Pairs of walnuts are also sometimes sold still in their green skin, as a form of gambling known as du he tao.
See also 
External Links 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Walnuts|
- "Walnut; Agriculture - Transport Information Service". Association for German Insurance. 2010.
- "Commodity Profile: English Walnuts". AgMRC, University of California. 2006.
- Online Etymology Dictionary - "Walnut"
- "Total production, 2010, Walnut with Shell". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2012.
- "Crops production & yields, 2010, Walnut with Shell". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2012.
- "Food, Nutrition & Agriculture - Prevention of aflatoxin". FAO, United Nations. 1998.
- "Nutrient data (search for English walnut and Black walnut)". United States Department of Agriculture. 2010.
- Deirdre K Banel and Frank B Hu (2009). "Effects of walnut consumption on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis and systematic review". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90: 1–8. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27457.
- "Omega-3 Fatty Acids". Tufts University. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- Charles, Deborah (21 April 2009). "Want to reduce breast cancer risk? Eat walnuts". Reuters. Retrieved 4 April 2011. "Scientists have been unsure whether the types found in nuts and leafy green vegetables work as well as the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil."
- Arranz, Sara; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio (2007). "Antioxidant capacity of walnut (Juglans regia L.): Contribution of oil and defatted matter". European Food Research and Technology 227 (2): 425–31. doi:10.1007/s00217-007-0737-2.
- "Walnuts are top nut for heart-healthy antioxidants". American Chemical Society (Anaheim). 27 March 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
- "Ask the Expert: Omega-3 Fatty Acids". Harvard University. 21 April 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2011. "Omega-6 fatty acids lower LDL cholesterol (the "bad" cholesterol) and reduce inflammation, and they are protective against heart disease. So both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are healthy. While there is a theory that omega-3 fatty acids are better for our health than omega-6 fatty acids, this is not supported by the latest evidence. Thus the omega-3 to omega-6 ratio is basically the "good divided by the good," so it is of no value in evaluating diet quality or predicting disease."
- "Cholesterol: Top 5 foods to lower your numbers". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- Park, Alice (29 March 2011). "The Supernut: Walnuts Pack a Powerful Dose of Antioxidants". Time (magazine). Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- "Walnuts are the healthiest nut, say scientists". BBC News. 27 March 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- "Eating Walnuts With High-Fat Meals Helps To Protect Arteries Against Short-Term Damage". 4 October 2010. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- Tapsell, L; Batterham, M; Tan, SY; Warensjö, E (2009). "The effect of a calorie controlled diet containing walnuts on substrate oxidation during 8-hours in a room calorimeter". Journal of the American College of Nutrition 28 (5): 611–7. PMID 20439557.
- Cortés, Berenice; Núñez, Isabel; Cofán, Montserrat; Gilabert, Rosa; Pérez-Heras, Ana; Casals, Elena; Deulofeu, Ramón; Ros, Emilio (2006). "Acute Effects of High-Fat Meals Enriched With Walnuts or Olive Oil on Postprandial Endothelial Function". Journal of the American College of Cardiology 48 (8): 1666–71. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2006.06.057. PMID 17045905.
- Willis, Lauren M.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Cheng, Vivian; Joseph, James A. (2008). "Dose-dependent effects of walnuts on motor and cognitive function in aged rats". British Journal of Nutrition 101 (8): 1140–4. doi:10.1017/S0007114508059369.
- "Eating Walnuts With High-Fat Meals Helps To Protect Arteries Against Short-Term Damage". 11 October 2006. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- "Walnuts May Improve Sperm Quality in Healthy Men". Webmd.com. 2012-08-15. Retrieved 2012-08-23.
- USA (2012-05-24). "Walnuts Improve Semen Quality in Men Consuming a... [Biol Reprod. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-23.
- Negi, Arvind Singh; Luqman, Suaib; Srivastava, Suchita; Krishna, Vinay; Gupta, Namita; Darokar, Mahendra Pandurang (2011). "Antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of Juglans regia fruit extracts". Pharmaceutical Biology 49 (6): 669–73. doi:10.3109/13880209.2010.537666. PMID 21554010.
- Phenolics of Green Husk in Mature Walnut Fruits. Sina Cosmulescu, Ion Trandafir, Gheorghe Achim, Mihai Botu, Adrian Baciu and Marius Gruia, Not. Bot. Hort. Agrobot. Cluj, 2010, 38 (1), pages 53-56 (article)
- Regiolone from the pericarps of Juglans regia L. J.-X. Liu, D.-L. Di, C. Li and X.-Y. Huang, Acta Cryst., 2007, E63, pages o2713-o2714, doi:10.1107/S1600536807019976
- Metabolism of Antioxidant and Chemopreventive Ellagitannins from Strawberries, Raspberries, Walnuts, and Oak-Aged Wine in Humans: Identification of Biomarkers and Individual Variability. Begoña Cerdá, Francisco A. Tomás-Barberán, and Juan Carlos Espín, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53 (2), pages 227–235, doi:10.1021/jf049144d
- (−)-Regiolone, an α-tetralone from Juglans regia: structure, stereochemistry and conformation. Sunil K. Talapatra, Bimala Karmacharya, Shambhu C. De and Bani Talapatra, Phytochemistry, Volume 27, Issue 12, 1988, pages 3929–3932, doi:10.1016/0031-9422(88)83047-4
- "Status-conscious investors shell out on great walnuts of China". Reuters. Aug 28, 2012.
- "Game of clones". Global Times. 16 October 2012.