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Music video by Rihanna performing Take A Bow. YouTube view counts pre-VEVO: 66288884. (C) 2008 The Island Def Jam Music Group.
Music video by Rihanna performing Rehab. YouTube view counts pre-VEVO: 19591123. (C) 2007 The Island Def Jam Music Group.
A substitute teacher from the inner city refuses to be messed with while taking attendance.
"Just One Last Time" feat. Taped Rai. Available to download on iTunes including remixes of : Tiësto, HARD ROCK SOFA & Deniz Koyu http://smarturl.it/DGJustOne...
YOLO is available on iTunes now! http://smarturl.it/lonelyIslandYolo New album coming soon... Check out the awesome band the music in YOLO is sampled from Th...
Macklemore & Ryan Lewis present the official music video for Can't Hold Us feat. Ray Dalton. Can't Hold Us on iTunes: https://itunes.apple.com/us/album/cant-...
This video accidentally turned out kind of sad, ME SO SOWWY IT NOT POSED TO BE SAD WHO WANTS HUGS AND COOKIES? Also, FYI for anyone attempting this, it takes...
Fun.'s music video for 'We Are Young' featuring Janelle Monáe from the full-length album, Some Nights - available now on Fueled By Ramen. Visit http://ournam...
What people expect romance to be vs what it really is... Follow Catherine! https://twitter.com/CDekoekkoek Check out my 2nd Channel for more vlogs: http://ww...
Jimmy reveals that he is f*@#ing Ben Affleck.
Music video by Eminem performing Love The Way You Lie. © 2010 Aftermath Records #VEVOCertified on September 13, 2011. http://www.vevo.com/certified http://ww...
So i was pretty hesitant to make this video... but after all of your request, here is my Draw My Life video! Check out my 2nd Channel for more vlogs: http://...
Yes! the guy's reaction is totally authentic. He had no idea we were coming, and he really got the order right (almost right). We couldn't believe it either,...
||This article is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay rather than an encyclopedic description of the subject. (November 2009)|
Cheating in video games involves a video game player using non-standard methods for creating an advantage beyond normal gameplay, usually to make the game easier. Cheats sometimes may take the form of "secrets" placed by game developers themselves.
Cheats may be activated from within the game itself (a cheat code implemented by the original game developers); or created by third-party software (a game trainer) or hardware (a cheat cartridge). They can also be realised by exploiting software bugs.
Cheating in video games has existed for almost their entire history. The first cheat codes were put in place for play testing purposes. Playtesters had to rigorously test the mechanics of a game and introduced cheat codes to make this process easier. An early cheat code can be found in Manic Miner, where typing "6031769" (based on Matthew Smith's driving licence,) enables the cheat mode.
In a computer game, all numerical values are stored "as is" in memory. Gamers could reprogram a small part of the game before launching it. In the context of games for many 8-bit computers, it was a usual practice to load games into memory and, before launching them, modify specific memory addresses in order to cheat, getting an unlimited number of lives, currency, immunity, invisibility, etc. Such modifications were performed through POKE statements. The Commodore 64 and ZX Spectrum also allowed players with the proper cartridges or Multiface add-on to freeze the running program, enter POKEs, and resume. Some games tried to detect the Multiface, and refused to load if it was present. The earliest models had no ability to "hide". Later revisions either included a switch, hid if been opened and closed the menu before loading the game, or automatically hid.
For instance, with "
POKE 47196,201" in Knight Lore for the ZX Spectrum, immunity is achieved. Magazines such as Crash regularly featured lists of such POKE instructions for games. In order to find them a hacker had to interpret the machine code and locate the critical point where the number of lives is decreased, impacts detected, etc. Sometimes the term POKE was used with this specific meaning.
Cheating was exploited by technology-oriented players due to the difficulty of early cheats. However, a cheat industry emerged as gaming systems evolved, through the packaging and selling of cheating as a product. Cheat-enablers such as cheat books, game guides, cheat cartridges helped form a cheat industry and cemented cheating as part of gaming culture. However, cheating was not universally accepted in early gaming; gaming magazine Amiga Power condemned cheaters, taking the stance that cheating was not part of their philosophy of fairness. They also applied this in reverse; games should also not be allowed to cheat the player. Guides, walkthroughs and tutorials are sometimes used to complete games but whether this is cheating is debatable, If no cheat codes, exploits or glitches are used it is generally not considered to be cheating by the hardcore gaming community as the player is receiving help that will improve their game play performance as opposed to gaining an unfair in game advantage.
Later, cheating grew more popular with magazines, websites, and even a television show, Cheat!, dedicated to listing cheats and walkthroughs for consoles and computer systems. POKE cheats were replaced by trainers and cheat codes. Generally, the majority of cheat codes on modern day systems are implemented not by gamers, but by game developers. Some say that as many people do not have the time to complete a video game on their own, cheats are needed to make a game more accessible and appealing to a casual gamer. With the rise in popularity of gaming, cheating using external software and hardware raised a number of copyright legal issues related to modifying game code.
Many modern games have removed cheat codes entirely, save for uses to unlock certain secret bonuses. The usage of real-time achievement tracking made it unfair for any one player to cheat. In online multiplayer games, cheating is frowned upon and disallowed, often leading to a ban. However, certain games may unlock single-player cheats if the player fulfills a certain condition. Yet other games, such as those using the Source engine, allow developer consoles to be used to activate a wide variety of cheats in single-player or by server administrators.
Many games which use in-game purchases consider cheating to be not only wrong but also illegal, seeing as cheats in such games would allow players to access content (like power-ups and extra coins) that would otherwise require payment to obtain. However, cheating in such games is nonetheless a moral grey area because there are no laws against modifying software which is already owned, as detailed in the Digital Millennium Act.
Cheat codes 
The most basic type of cheat code is one created by the game designers and hidden within the video game itself, that will cause any type of uncommon effect that is not part of the usual game mechanics.
Activation methods for cheat codes might include entering a code at a password prompt or a pressing a combination of game controller buttons, such as the "Konami Code", or by passwords that can be typed in to get the desired effect or bring up a cheat menu. Other entry points may be a developer console, a code entry dialog, at title screens, or in-game. Effects might include unlocking a character or improving a character's performance: for example providing a car with greater acceleration, entering god mode or noclip mode, or visual gags with no practical purpose, such as "Tutu Qwark" in Ratchet & Clank: Up Your Arsenal.
Unlike other cheating methods, cheat codes are implemented by the game developers themselves, often as a tool to playtest certain aspects of the game without difficulty. One of the earliest known examples of this type of cheat is the Konami Code, created in 1986 by Konami developer Kazuhisa Hashimoto as he worked on porting the 1985 arcade game Gradius for use on the Nintendo Entertainment System. Hashimoto is quoted as saying "The arcade version of Gradius is really difficult, right? I never played it that much, and there was no way I could finish the game, so I inserted the so-called Konami code."
Modification of runtime game data 
Cheating can easily be achieved by modifying the game's data while it is running. These methods of cheating are often less reliable than cheat codes included in a game by its creators. This is due to the fact that certain programming styles or quirks of internal game logic, different release versions of a game, or even using the same game at different times or on different hardware, may result in different memory usage and hence the trainer program might have no effect, or stop the game from running altogether.
Memory editing 
Cheating via memory editing involves modifying the memory values where the game keeps its status information. This can be achieved in a range of different ways depending of the game's running environment. The way to achieve this will vary depending on the environment in which the game is running.
Memory editing hardware 
A cheat cartridge is attached to an interface port on a home computer or console. It allows a user to modify the game code either before or during its execution. An early example is the Multiface for the ZX Spectrum, and almost every format since has had a cheat cartridge created for it; such as Datel's range of Action Replay devices. Another popular example of this is Game Genie for Sega Genesis, NES, Super Nintendo, Game Boy, and Game Gear game consoles. Modern disc-based cheat hardware include GameShark and Code Breaker which modify game code from a large database of cheats. In later generation consoles, cheat cartridges have come to be replaced by cheat discs that usually contain a game loader and, used to boot the console, modify the console's memory environment previous to the loading of the actual game disc.
The legality of this type of devices has been questioned, having raised a particular case named Lewis Galoob Toys, Inc. v. Nintendo of America, Inc., in which Nintendo unsuccessfully sued Lewis Galoob Toys stating that its cheating device, the Game Genie, created derivative works of games and violated copyright law.
Memory editing software 
The most basic way of achieving this is by means of memory editor software, which allows the player to directly edit the numeric values in a certain memory address. This kind of software usually includes a feature that allows the player to perform memory searches to aid the user to locate the memory areas where known values (such as the amount of lives, score or health level) are located. Provided a memory address, a memory editor may also be able to "freeze" it, preventing the game from altering the information stored at that memory address.
Game trainers are a special type of memory editor, in which the program comes with predefined functions to modify the run time memory of a specific computer game. When distributed, trainers often have a single + and a number appended to their title, representing the number of modifications the trainer has available.
In the 1980s and 1990s, trainers were generally integrated straight into the actual game by cracking groups. When the game was first started, the trainer would typically show a splash screen of its own, sometimes allowing modifications of options related to the trainer, and then proceed to the actual game. In the cracker group release lists and intros, trained games were marked with one or more plus signs after them, one for each option in the trainer, for example: "the Mega Krew presents: Ms. Astro Chicken++".
Many emulators have built-in functionality that allows players to modify data as the game is running, sometimes even emulating cheating hardware such as Game Genie. Some emulators take this method a step further and allow the player to export and import data edits. Edit templates of many games for a console are collected and redistributed as cheat packs.
Emulators also frequently offer the additional advantage of being able to save the state of the entire emulated machine at any point, effectively allowing saving at any point in a game even when save functionality is not provided by the game itself. Cheating hardware such as "Instant Replay" also allows such behaviour for some consoles.
Code injection 
Somewhat more unusual than memory editing, code injection consists of the modification of the game's executable code while it is running, for example with the use of POKE commands. In the case of Jet Set Willy on the ZX Spectrum computer, a popular cheat involved replacing a Z80 instruction
DEC (HL) in the program (which was responsible for decrementing the number of lives by one) with a
NOP, effectively granting the player infinite lives.
Saved game editors 
Editing a saved game offers an indirect way to modify game data. By modifying a file in persistent storage, it is possible to effectively modify the run time game data that will be restored when the game attempts to load the save game.
Hex editors were the most basic means of editing saved game files (e.g. to give the player a large sum of money in strategy games such as Dune II). However, as happened with game editors, dedicated game-editing utilities soon became available, including functions to effortlessly edit saved data for specific games, rendering hex editing largely obsolete for this purpose.
Network traffic forgery 
A similar method for cheating in online games involves editing packets in the outbound network traffic, thus affecting the state of the game. Although this method was more common a few years ago, games are developed with more robustness to prevent network and packet modifications, and the Terms of Service for most games explicitly forbid this form of cheating.
Unusual effects 
Cheat codes may sometimes produce unusual or interesting effects which don't necessarily make the game easier to play. For example, one cheat in Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis makes dinosaurs appear "undead". Another example occurs in the game Dungeon Siege, where activating the cheat to extend the range of a bow also allows the enemies to fire at the same distance, thereby eliminating the advantage the cheat would have given. A cheat may even make the game harder to play; for instance, one could give the enemy special abilities, increase general difficulty, make neutral bystanders attack the player or grant the player a disadvantage such as low health points. Cheats in Grand Theft Auto games can make NPCs start rioting or wield weapons. In Grand Theft Auto III, the player can activate a cheat to enable blowing off the limbs of NPCs, a feature originally included in the game.
Some games humorously penalize the player for using another game's cheat codes; for example, using cheat codes from Doom in Descent only displays sarcastic messages from the programmers on screen. Similar effects occur if codes from Descent are used in its sequels. Codes from Doom used in Heretic give the opposite of the desired effect, such as instant death instead of invulnerability or stripping weapons instead of providing them. The original Doom's "god mode" code "IDDQD" is non-functional in Doom 3, but produces a console message: "Your memory serves you well."
Other codes make purely cosmetic changes—for example, to what the player character is wearing—but do not enhance the progress of the game. Most of the Grand Theft Auto games have a code to change the player character into an NPC. Other peculiar cheats may invoke "big-head mode" (GoldenEye 007, Oni), replace weapons with other objects, or change the colors of characters.
Easter eggs are a related feature. Although such hidden content has no impact on gameplay, these 'eggs' can be found in many games and may even hint at future games in a series or give more information on a topic. For example, Easter eggs in Batman: Arkham City, allude to The Scarecrow, Harley Quinn's pregnancy and other aspects of the comic book world. Others are simply considered strange.
Counter-cheating measures 
In games having attainable achievements or high score records, or both, cheats by nature allow the player to attain achievements too easily or score point totals not attainable by a non-cheating player. In some games, developer commentary mode can have the same effect because these games, in an effort to make all commented-on scenarios accessible to the player, render a player invulnerable to damage while in commentary mode.
Barriers to game completion 
- The Sega 32X version of Doom does not allow the player to finish the game if any cheat codes were used; instead, after a cheating player defeats the game's penultimate level, the game simulates a program exit to DOS and displays a mock command prompt ("C:\>").
- Some PC games and most Xbox games do not record player achievements if they are attained while cheat mode is activated. For example, Half-Life 2: Episode 2 turns this barrier into a continuing obstacle if a player saves the game with cheats activated: The game will record that fact in the save file and automatically cause subsequent reloads from the relevant save file to reactivate cheat mode.
- In Ricochet Infinity, if a player cheats at all, their score will be set to zero, the message "You are Cheating" appears in the message box, and the player's progress after cheating will not be recorded.
- In Batman: The Movie on the Amiga, if the player has used a cheat, the end sequence appears upside down.
- In GoldenEye 007 on the Nintendo 64, missions finished with cheats activated do not count as completed, thus the player cannot progress unless they have already completed that mission without cheats.
- The Assassin's Creed franchise (in particular, Assassin's Creed: Revelations) permits the use of cheats after the game is completed, but disables player progress for any unfinished sub-quests while cheats are active.
Penalties to player performance 
- Entry of Wolfenstein 3-D's "ILM" code provides a player with the maximum possible lives, weapons, and ammunition but in the process resets a player's score to zero.
- If a player of Battlefield 1942 makes a mistake while entering a cheat code, the error triggers an algorithm that either makes the player automatically lose or gives the enemy the performance enhancements the player is attempting to obtain. The risk of incurring this cost varies with the player's memory and dexterity.
- If a player of Raven Software game Heretic tries to cheat by entering the God code from Doom, the game kills the player and displays the message "Trying to cheat, are you? Now you die!". If the player enters the weapons cheat code from Doom, the player loses all weapons acquired, is given a Staff as its new weapon with the message "Cheater, you don't deserve any weapons." displaying on screen.
- If a player in Unreal uses an "Admin Set" command, they will need to restart Unreal to enter any online server.
- In the Commodore 64 version of SimCity, pressing the F1 key would add $10,000 to the player's available funds. After the fourth time, an earthquake and fires would occur, and would reoccur every fourth time the cheat was used. However, if the player activated the cheat prior beginning building their city, only forest fires would have to be extinguished, rather than bulldozing and rebuilding damaged areas of the city.
Disclaimers regarding player achievement 
- If a player of Portal has any cheats activated when a chamber is completed in Challenge mode, the game will display "CHEATED!" above the performance summary screen for that level.
- Tyrian displays the message "Cheaters always prosper" on the bottom of the score screen.
- MechWarrior 3 makes its cheat modes readily available as standard game options (as opposed to, e.g., requiring the entry of a "secret" code) but labels these game options "dishonorable," a reference to the code of honor shared by the game's rival clans.
- In Grand Theft Auto: Vice City, entering a cheat code to spawn vehicles will reduce the player's criminal rating. If this drops below zero cheat-related messages are displayed. Other cheats may render the game extremely difficult, such as enabling the 'pedestrians carry weapons' along with the 'pedestrians hate you' cheat and saving. The game will notify the player if an attempt to save with gameplay-altering cheats enabled, as they will remain saved with the game if the player does save.
- Sanctum displays a message after each wave if any cheating measure is used, and disables scores and achievement until the game is restarted.
Cheating in online games 
Cheating exists in many multiplayer online computer games. While there have always been cheat codes and other ways to make single-player games easier, developers often attempt to prevent it in multiplayer games. With the release of the first popular internet multiplayer games, cheating took on new dimensions. Previously it was rather easy to see if the other players cheated, as most games were played on local networks or consoles. The Internet changed that by increasing the popularity of multiplayer games, giving the players relative anonymity, and giving people an avenue to communicate cheats.
Examples of cheats in first-person shooter games include the aimbot, which assists the player in aiming at the target, giving the user an unfair advantage, the wallhack, which allows a player to see through solid or opaque objects or manipulate or remove textures, and ESP, with which the information of other players is displayed.
In role-playing games, twinking, the practice of passing on valuable items not normally available at player's character's level, may be considered cheating.
In online multiplayer games, players may use macro scripts, which automate player actions, to automatically find items or defeat enemies for the player's advantage. The prevalence of massively multiplayer online games (MMORPGs) such as World of Warcraft, Anarchy Online, EverQuest, Guild Wars, and RuneScape has resulted in the trading of in-game currency for real world currency. This can lead to virtual economies. The rise of virtual economies has led to cheating where a gamer uses macros to gain large amounts of ingame money which the player will then trade for real cash. The Terms of Service of most modern online games now specifically prohibit the transfer of accounts or sale of in-game items for 'real-world' money. Depending on the company running the game, this may or may not be taken seriously. Many online games subtly allow trading of in-game currency for real life cash due to resources required for the company to find and catch gold buyers, as well as the revenue lost when banning someone buying gold. While many MMORPG gamers are vehemently against buying gold to the point of viewing the buyer as similar to a real life criminal, there are many gamers who believe opposite and see buying gold as a means to having more fun, which they argue is the purpose of playing games. Some players view the problem not with the gold buyers but the gold farmers, while others view the problem being with the infinite-gold economy and power of higher level players and their capacity to farm significantly more amounts of gold than lower level players.
Whilst games cannot prevent cheating in single-player modes, cheating in online games is common on public game servers. Some online games, such as Battlefield 1942, include specific features to counter cheating exploits, by incorporating tools such as PunkBuster, nProtect GameGuard, or Valve Anti-Cheat. However, much like anti-virus companies; anti-cheat tools are constantly and consistently bypassed until further updates force cheat creators to find new methods to bypass the protection.
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