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Music video by Rihanna performing Take A Bow. YouTube view counts pre-VEVO: 66288884. (C) 2008 The Island Def Jam Music Group.
Watch Season 1 of Mortal Kombat Legacy here: http://www.youtube.com/channel/SWVkIoQKmEa4I The Mortal Kombat Legacy continues in Season 2 as Liu Kang, Kung La...
"Just One Last Time" feat. Taped Rai. Available to download on iTunes including remixes of : Tiësto, HARD ROCK SOFA & Deniz Koyu http://smarturl.it/DGJustOne...
Download This Song: http://bit.ly/KzLBGB Click to Tweet this Vid-ee-oh! http://bit.ly/Nt9lg8 Hi. My name is Nice Peter, and this is EpicLLOYD, and this is th...
Macklemore & Ryan Lewis present the official music video for Can't Hold Us feat. Ray Dalton. Can't Hold Us on iTunes: https://itunes.apple.com/us/album/cant-...
This video accidentally turned out kind of sad, ME SO SOWWY IT NOT POSED TO BE SAD WHO WANTS HUGS AND COOKIES? Also, FYI for anyone attempting this, it takes...
So i was pretty hesitant to make this video... but after all of your request, here is my Draw My Life video! Check out my 2nd Channel for more vlogs: http://...
A substitute teacher from the inner city refuses to be messed with while taking attendance.
Buy at iTunes: http://goo.gl/zv4o9. New album on sale now! http://turtleneckandchain.com.
Official music video for "Wide Awake," the final chapter from 'Teenage Dream: The Complete Confection' on iTunes: http://smarturl.it/katyperry. Written by Ka...
See Harrison Ford in 42! Go to http://42movie.warnerbros.com/ Jimmy Kimmel Live - Harrison Ford Won't Answer Star Wars Questions Jimmy Kimmel Live's YouTube ...
Buy on iTunes: http://www.Smarturl.it/TTT Amazon: http://idj.to/svJVGM Music video by Rihanna performing Where Have You Been. ©: The Island Def Jam Music Group.
shred securely erasing a text file
shred is a Unix command that can be used to securely delete files and devices so that they can be recovered only with great difficulty with specialised hardware, if at all.1 It is a part of GNU Core Utilities.
For efficiency, erasing a file usually only erases the file system entry and keeps the content of the file intact. This frequently allows the file to be recovered using commonly available software. Even if the file is overwritten, residual magnetic fields may allow data recovery using specialist hardware equipment. To prevent this, shred overwrites the file multiple times using patterns chosen to maximize destruction of the residual data. The articles data erasure and data remanence have additional information.
shred can be invoked either on ordinary files or on devices (such as hard disk partitions), which are represented as files in Unix. By default, shred overwrites the file three times with multiple patterns, but the number is user configurable. Shred has an option to do an additional final overwrite with zeroes, which may help to hide the fact that shred was used.
By default, shred also shreds file slack (unused space in file allocations). For example, a 5 KB file on a file system with 4 KB clusters actually requires 8 KB of storage. Shred has an option to overwrite only the file itself, as well as an option to delete the file after it has completed operation.
A limitation of shred when invoked on ordinary files is that it only overwrites the data in place without overwriting other copies of the file. Copies can manifest themselves in a variety of ways, such as through manual and automatic backups, file system snapshots, copy-on-write filesystems, wear leveling on flash drives, caching such as NFS caching, and journaling. All limitations imposed by the file system can be overcome by shredding every device on which the data resides instead of specific files. However, since wear leveled devices do not guarantee a fixed relationship between logical blocks addressable through the interface and the physical locations in which the data is stored, shredding may not provide adequate security. If available, the SATA secure erase command, issued through hdparm or a similar utility, may be helpful in this situation. Even for magnetic devices, SATA secure erase will be faster and more reliable than shredding. Physical destruction may be necessary to securely erase devices such as memory cards and unusable hard disks.
- shred invocation, GNU Coreutils. Accessed February 3, 2009.
- Shred and secure-delete, Free Software Magazine. November 29, 2008. Accessed February 3, 2009.
- Secure Erase Definition, About.com. Accessed April 17, 2012.
- How To Completely Erase a Hard Drive, About.com. Accessed April 17, 2012.
- 1.^ The data remanence article provides citations to publications that investigate the security of shredding.