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|— region / Proposed State —|
|• Total||114,840 km2 (44,340 sq mi)|
|• Density||310/km2 ( 800/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Telangana is a region in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India and formerly was part of Hyderabad State which was ruled by the Nizams. It is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north and north-west, Karnataka to the west, Chhattisgarh to the north-east and Odisha to the east. Andhra Pradesh State has three main cultural regions of which Telangana is one; others include Coastal Andhra region in the east and Rayalaseema region in the south. The Telangana region has an area of 114,840 square kilometres (44,340 sq mi), and a population of 35,286,757 (2011 census) which is 41.6% of Andhra Pradesh state population.
The Telangana region comprises 10 districts: Hyderabad, Adilabad, Khammam, Karimnagar, Mahbubnagar, Medak, Nalgonda, Nizamabad, Rangareddy, and Warangal. The Musi River, Krishna and Godavari rivers flow through the region from west to east. Hyderabad and Warangal are two largest cities in Telangana region. Warangal city is accorded world heritage city by UNESCO in March 2013.
On December 9, 2009, Government of India announced process of formation of Telangana state. Due to objections raised in Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions immediately after the announcement, and due to the agitation in those regions for 14 days, the decision to form the new state was put on hold on December 23, 2009. Since December 2009, Telangana movement intensified and it continued to dominate the state politics and is the cause of instability in the region.
The etymology of "Telangana" is not known for certain. It is thought to have been derived from Trilinga, as in Trilinga Desa, "the country of the three lingas". According to a Hindu legend, Shiva descended as linga on three mountains namely, Kaleshwaram, Srisailam and Draksharama, which marked the boundaries of the Telangana and the language spoken by Telangana people is known as Telugu. But Telugu is spoken outside the borders created by these three lingas.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2012)|
Telangana was the center of culture, learning, and power in the Deccan and India for centuries. Telangana's long and rich history was shaped by the great empires that have risen and fell in its area. After the decline of the influential Mauryan Empire, the Satavahana dynasty (230 BCE to 220 CE), the first great Telugu empire, came to be the dominant power in the region. It originated from the lands between the Godavari and Krishna Rivers. Kotilingala in Karimnagar was their first capital, before moving to Dharanikota. Excavations at Kotilingala revealed coinage of Simukha, the first Satavahana emperor. The Satavahana Empire was important in repelling foreign empires from India, such as the Kushans, Sakas and Greeks, thereby preserving Indian culture.
The region experienced its golden age during the reign of the Kakatiya dynasty, a Telugu dynasty from Warangal that ruled most parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh from 1083 to 1323 AD. Ganapatideva, who came to power in 1199, was known as the greatest of the Kakatiyas, and the first after the Satavahanas to bring the entire Telugu area under one rule. He put an end to the rule of the Cholas, who accepted his suzerainty in the year 1210. He established order in his vast dominion that stretched from the Godavari delta in the east to Raichur (in modern day Karnataka) in the west and from Karimnagar and Bastar (in modern day Chhattisgarh) in the north to Srisailam and Tripurantakam, near Ongole, in the south. It was during his reign that the Golkonda fort was constructed. Rudrama Devi and Prataparudra were prominent rulers from the Kakatiya dynasty. Kakatiya dynasty weakened with the attack of Malik Kafur in 1309 and was dissolved with the defeat of Prataparudra in 1323 by the forces of Muhammad bin Tughlaq in 1323.
The great Vijayanagara Empire of South India may have had its origins in the Telugu Kakatiyas of Warangal. The Telugu origin of the dynasty proposes that first kings of the empires, brothers Bukka Raya I and Harihara I, were generals in the Kakatiya army. After defeat of the army by Muhammad bin Tughlaq, the brothers were taken prisoner and forced to convert to Islam. However, they managed escape, reconfirm their Hindu faith, and establish the Vijayanagara Empire.
In 1712, Asif Jah I was appointed to be Viceroy of the Deccan, with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (Administrator of the Realm). In 1724, Asif Jah I defeated Mubariz Khan to establish autonomy over the Deccan Suba, starting what came to be known as the Asif Jahi dynasty. He named the region Hyderabad Deccan. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were referred to as Asif Jahi Nizams, or Nizams of Hyderabad. When Asif Jah I died in 1748, there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons, who were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces. In 1769, Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the Nizams.
From the late nineteenth century on, Hyderabad was transformed into a modern city with the establishment of railway, transport services, underground drainage, running water, electricity, Begumpet Airport, telecommunications, universities and industries.
When India became independent from the British Empire in 1947, the Nizam of Hyderabad did not want to merge with Indian Union and wanted to remain independent under the special provisions given to princely states. The Government of India annexed Hyderabad State on 17 September 1948, in an operation by the Indian Army called Operation Polo which government called Police action. When India became independent, Telugu-speaking people were distributed in about 22 districts, 9 of them in the former Nizam's dominions of the princely state of Hyderabad, 12 in the Madras Presidency (Northern Circars), and one in French-controlled Yanam.
The Central Government appointed a civil servant, M. K. Vellodi, as First Chief Minister of Hyderabad State on 26 January 1950. He administered the state with the help of bureaucrats from Madras State and Bombay State. In 1952, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected Chief minister of Hyderabad State in the first democratic election. During this time there were violent agitations by some Telanganites to send back bureaucrats from Madras state, and to strictly implement rule by natives of Hyderabad.
Meanwhile, Telugu-speaking areas in the Northern Circars and Rayalaseema regions were carved out of the erstwhile Madras state on the fast unto death by Potti Sri Ramulu to create Andhra State in 1953, with Kurnool as its capital.
Telangana Rebellion 
The Telangana Rebellion was a peasant revolt which was later supported by the Communists. It took place in the former princely state of Hyderabad between 1946 and 1951. This was led by the Communist Party of India.
The revolt began in the Nalgonda district against the Feudal Lords of Reddys and Velamas castes. It quickly spread to the Warangal and Bidar districts. Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against the local feudal landlords (jagirdars and deshmukhs) and later against the Osman Ali Khan, Asif Jah VII. The violent phase of the movement ended after the central government sent in the army. Starting in 1951, the CPI shifted to a more moderate strategy of seeking to bring communism to India within the constraints of Indian democracy.
Merger of Telangana and Andhra 
In December 1953, the States Reorganization Commission was appointed to study the creation of states on linguistic basis. The States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) was not in favour of an immediate merger of Telangana region with Andhra state, despite their common language.
Paragraph 382 of the States Reorganisation Commission Report (SRC) said "opinion in Andhra is overwhelmingly in favour of the larger unit; public opinion in Telangana has still to crystallize itself. Important leaders of public opinion in Andhra themselves seem to appreciate that the unification of Telangana with Andhra, though desirable, should be based on a voluntary and willing association of the people and that it is primarily for the people of Telangana to take a decision about their future".
The people of Telangana had several concerns. The region had a less-developed economy than Andhra, but with a larger revenue base (mostly because it taxed rather than prohibited alcoholic beverages), which people of Telangana feared might be diverted for use in Andhra. They feared that planned irrigation projects on the Krishna and Godavari rivers would not benefit Telangana proportionately, even though people of Telangana controlled the headwaters of the rivers. It was feared that the people of Andhra, who had access to higher standards of education under the British rule, would have an unfair advantage in seeking government and educational jobs.
The commission proposed that the Telangana region be constituted as a separate state with a provision for unification with Andhra state, after the 1961 general elections, if a resolution could be passed in the Telangana state assembly with a two-thirds majority.
The Chief Minister of Hyderabad State, Burgula Ramakrishna Rao, expressed his view that a majority of Telangana people were against the merger. (evidence : url=http://missiontelangana.com/1954-1956-telangana-movement). He supported the Congress party's central leadership decision to merge Telangana and Andhra despite opposition in Telangana. Andhra state assembly passed a resolution on 25 November 1955 to provide safeguards to Telangana. The resolution said, "Assembly would further like to assure the people in Telangana that the development of that area would be deemed to be special charge, and that certain priorities and special protection will be given for the improvement of that area, such as reservation in services and educational institutions on the basis of population and irrigational development." Telangana leaders did not believe the safeguards would work. An agreement was reached between Telangana leaders and Andhra leaders on 20 February 1956 to merge Telangana and Andhra with promises to safeguard Telangana's interests.
Prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru initially was skeptical of merging Telangana with Andhra State, fearing a "tint of expansionist imperialism" in it. He compared the merger to a matrimonial alliance having "provisions for divorce" if the partners in the alliance cannot get on well.
Following the Gentlemen's agreement, the central government established a unified Andhra Pradesh on November 1, 1956. The agreement provided reassurances to Telangana in terms of power-sharing as well as administrative domicile rules and distribution of expenses of various regions.
Separate Telangana state movement 
There have been several movements to invalidate the merger of Telangana and Andhra, major ones occurring in 1969, 1972 and 2000s onwards. The Telangana movement gained momentum over decades becoming a widespread political demand of creating a new state from the Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh.
On December 9, 2009, Government of India announced process of formation of Telangana state. Due to objections raised in Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions immediately after the announcement, and due to the agitation in those regions for 14 days, the decision to form to new state was put on hold on December 23, 2009. The movement continues in Hyderabad and other districts of Telangana.
Grievances of Telangana proponents 
Telangana is the largest of the three regions of Andhra Pradesh state, covering 41.47% of its total area. It is inhabited by 40.54% of the state's population and contributes about 76% of the state's revenues, excluding the contribution of the central government. When the central government's contribution to revenue is included, Andhra Pradesh's revenue sources come from Telangana: 61.47% (including 37.17% from Hyderabad); from the central government: 19.86%; from Andhra: 14.71%; and from Rayalaseema: 3.90%. Proponents of a separate Telangana state cite perceived injustices in the distribution of water, budget allocations, and jobs. Within the state of Andhra Pradesh, 68.5% of the catchment area of the Krishna River and 69% of the catchment area of the Godavari River are in the Telangana region. Telangana supporters state that the benefits of irrigation through the canal system under major irrigation projects is accruing substantially, 74.25%, to the Coastal Andhra region, while the share to Telangana is 18.20%. The remaining 7.55% goes to the Rayalaseema region.
As per Volume-II of Krishna Water Dispute Tribunal Award - "The area which we are considering for irrigation formed part of Hyderabad State and had there been no division of that State, there were better chances for the residents of this area to get irrigation facilities in Mahboobnagar District. We are of the opinion that this area should not be deprived of the benefit of irrigation on account of the reorganisation of States.".
There are allegations that in most years, funds allocated to Telangana were never spent. According to Professor Jayashankar only 20% of the total Government employees, less than 10% of employees in the secretariat, and less than 5% of department heads in the Andhra Pradesh government are from Telangana; those from other regions make up the bulk of employment. He also alleged that the state was represented by Telangana chief ministers for only 6 1/2 years out of over five decades of its existence, with no chief minister from the region being in power continuously for more than 2 1/2 years. As per Srikrishna committee on Telangana, Telangana held the position of CM for 10.5 years while Seema-Andhra region held it for 42 years. Proponents of a separate Telangana state feel that the agreements, plans, and assurances from the legislature and Lok Sabha over the last fifty years have not been honoured, and as a consequence Telangana has remained neglected, exploited, and backward. They allege that the experiment to remain as one state has proven to be a futile exercise and that separation is the best solution.
According to activists, from 2010-12 over 300 young people killed themselves - many by self-immolation - demanding more political control for the locals of Telangana.
Telangana is situated in the central stretch of the eastern seaboard of the Indian Peninsula. Of the three regions of the state of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana has the largest area, with 114,800 square kilometres (44,300 sq mi). The Deccan plateau is drained by two major rivers, the Godavari and the Krishna. 69% of the Krishna River and 79% of the Godavari River catchment area is in Telangana region. Telangana is also drained by other minor rivers such as Manair, Bhima, Dindi, Kinnerasani, Manjeera, Munneru, Moosi, Penganga, Praanahita, and Peddavagu and Taliperu.
Telangana is a semi-arid region of Andhra Pradesh and has a predominantly hot and dry climate. Summers start in March, and peak in May with average high temperatures in the 42 °C (108 °F) range. The monsoon arrives in June and lasts until September with about 550 mm (22 in) of precipitation. A dry, mild winter starts in late November and lasts until early February. With little humidity and average temperatures in the 22–23 °C (72–73 °F) range, this is the best time to visit the region.
|Climate data for Hyderabad|
|Record high °C (°F)||33.4
|Average high °C (°F)||28.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||22.2
|Average low °C (°F)||14.7
|Record low °C (°F)||8.8
|Rainfall mm (inches)||3.2
|Avg. rainy days||.3||.4||.9||1.8||2.7||7.6||10.6||10.1||8.9||5.7||1.6||.4||51.0|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||279.0||271.2||263.5||273.0||282.1||180.0||142.6||136.4||168.0||226.3||246.0||263.5||2,731.6|
|Source #1: India Meteorological Department (1951–1980), NOAA (extremes, mean, humidity, 1971–1990)|
|Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only, 1971–1990)|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Natural resources 
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (December 2009)|
Telangana region has rich natural resources. 45% of the forest area in Andhra Pradesh state is in Telangana region, spread across five districts. 20% of the coal deposits in the country are in Telangana region. The Singareni Collieries Company excavates coal for industrial purposes and for thermal power stations. The power generated is supplied to the entire of South India. There are limestone deposits in the region, which cater to cement factories. Telangana has other resources such as bauxite and mica.
Demography and language 
According to the Backward Regions Grant Fund 2009–10, 13 backward districts are located in Andhra Pradesh; 9 (Except Hyderabad) are from Telangana region and the rest are from other regions.
Telangana has 86% Hindu, 12.4% Muslim, and 1.2% Christian population. Hyderabad city(district) has 55.4% Hindu, 41.2% Muslim, 2.4% Christian population. Greater Hyderabad, which includes Hyderabad suburbs which falls in Rangareddy district, has 25% of Muslim population. Other districts in Telangana region (outside of Hyderabad district) have 8.4% of the Muslim population.
About 77% of Telangana people speak Telugu, 12% speak Urdu, 11% speak other languages. Before 1948, with Urdu being state language of Nizam state and due to lack of Telugu educations institutions, Urdu was popular language among educated and elite of Telangana. After 1948, with Hyderabad state joining Indian repuiblic, Telugu became the language of government and with introduction Telugu instruction in schools and colleges, use of Urdu language among non-Muslims decreased. 
Culture and identity 
The Hyderabad's Deccani or Dakkini culture is evolved on its own as a distinctive culture due to confluence of different people who came from different places to serve under the Golkonda rulers.
Bonalu, Bathukamma, Diwali, Vijayadashami, Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, Moharram, Milad un Nabi, Christmas, Sri Rama Navami, Vinayaka Chaviti, Tholi ekadasi, Sammakka Saralamma Jatara, Mahashivarathri, Varalaxmi Vratam, Nagula Panchami, Nagula Chavithi, Sri Krishnastami, Sankranti and Ugadi are prominent festivals in Telangana. Other festivals of Hindus and Muslims such as Holi, Raksha Bandhan, Eid-ul-Fitr and Milad un Nabi are also celebrated with equal enthusiasm as in rest of India. Bathukamma and Bonalu are regional festivals of Telangana.
Bammera Pothana, the poet who composed the classic SriMadh Maha Bhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of Sri Bhagavatham, authored by Veda Vyasa in Sanskrit. Golkonda Nawab Muhammed Quli Qutub Shah had the distinction of being the first Saheb-e-dewan Urdu poet and is credited with introducing a new sensibility into prevailing genres of Persian/Urdu poetry. Other prominent poets of the Telangana region in the early era include Kancherla Gopanna or Bhakta Ramadasu, Gona Budda Reddy Palkuriki Somanatha, Mallinātha Sūri, Hulukki Bhaskara and in modern era poets include Padma Vibhushan Kaloji Narayana Rao, Sahitya Akademy award recipient Dasarathi Krishnamacharya, Vachaspathi Puraskar award recipient Sribhashyam Vijayasarathi and Jnanpith award recipient Dr. C. Narayana Reddy, Pamulaparti Venkata Narasimha Rao the 9th Prime Minister of India. Samala Sadasiva has been selected for 'Kendra Sahitya Puraskaram'. His book 'Swaralayalu' on Hindustani music got selected for the award for the year 2011.
See also 
- States Reorganization Act
- Northern Circars
- Kosta/Coastal Andhra
- Samaikhya Andhra
- List of notable Telangana people
- Self-immolations in India
- Area of Andhra Pradesh districts
- Census details for districts in Andhra Pradesh
- Census details for districts in Andhra Pradesh
- Official Govt of India Website, Office of the Registrar general&Census Commissioner India (One may need to Register&Login to get this district-wise data)
- Warangal accorded World Heritage city status by UNESCO - Tv9
- UNESCO'S WORLD HERITAGE CITY STATUS FOR WARANGAL
- History of Kannada language: readership lectures, By R. Narasimhacharya
- "A grammar of the Teloogoo language, commonly termed the Gentoo, peculiar to the Hindoos inhabiting the north eastern provinces of the Indian peninsula(page iii)". Alexander Duncan Campbell. Sashachellum, 1816. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- "Antiquities unearthed at Kotilingala". The Hindu. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Richards, J. F. (1975). "The Hyderabad Karnatik, 1687–1707". Modern Asian Studies (Cambridge University Press) 9 (2): 241–260. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00004996. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- Mulki agitation in Hyderabad State
- "History and Culture – History-Post-Independence Era". APonline. Retrieved 2010-09-14.
- After Sriramulu, Andhra State
- Andhra State formed
- Elliot, Carolyn M. (November 1974). "Decline of a Patrimonial Regime: The Telangana Rebellion in India, 1946–51". Journal of Asian Studies 34 (1): 24–47.
- History of Communist party in India
- SRC submits report
- Hyderabad CM's Views on merger (Wikisource)
- Pro-Telangana crowd mob Andhra ex-minister at airport; Hyderabad CM appeal to people: Abide by High command decision - Page 8 of Nov 16, 1955 Indian Express
- Vishandhra here and now. Special safeguards for Telangana. -Govt motion in Andhra Assembly - Page 5 of Nov 26, 1955 Indian Express
- No belief in Safeguards: Hyderabad PCC chief. - Page 4 of Nov 21, 1955 Indian Express
- Telangana Leaders must Adhere to Delhi Resolution - High command advise; High command has open mind, Claims Chenna Reddi - Plea for Telangana - Page 7 of Nov 27, 1955 Indian Express
- SRC sub committee said no decision on Visalandhra taken.- Page 1 of Feb 1, 1956 Indian Express
- New Telugu state to be called Hyderabad. Regional council for Telangana. - Page 1 of Feb 21, 1956 Indian Express
- Visalandhra demand was bearing a taint of "expansive imperialism": Nehru - page8 of Indian express Oct 2, 1953
- Visalandhra demand was bearing a taint of "expansive imperialism": Nehru - page8 of Indian express Oct 2, 1953
- Reorganisation, then and now
- Nehru compares merger with Matrimonial alliance with provision for divorce
- Andhra Pradesh to be formed with safeguards to Telangana
- Andhra Pradesh formed
- "Manorama Online". Week.manoramaonline.com. Retrieved 2010-09-14.
- "How Telangana movement has sparked political turf war in Andhra". Rediff.com. 5 October 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
- "Pro-Telangana AP govt employees threaten agitation". The Economic Times. 10 February 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- Francesco Brunello Zanitti "Telangana issue sparks more turmoil". Asia Times Online. 19 October 2012.
- andhrajyothy.com Team - firstname.lastname@example.org. "Andhra Jyothy Telugu News Paper Online edition published from Andhra Pradesh, India". Andhrajyothy.com. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
- Irrigation & CAD Department
- "Microsoft Word – Jayashankar2.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-09-14.
- "Andhra Pradesh News : JAC urges YSR to implement GO 610". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 2004-05-25. Retrieved 2010-09-14.
- "Andhra Pradesh / Visakhapatnam News : Heated debate over GO 610". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 2007-07-09. Retrieved 2010-09-14.
- "Page 407 of SKC report" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-10-09.
- "Telangana Development Forum-USA". Telangana.org. Retrieved 2010-09-14.
- Still seeking justice(30min video)
- http://www.economist.com/news/asia/21574544-creating-new-smaller-states-should-be-made-easier-good-small-things Breaking up Indian states: The good of small things
- Andhra Pradesh District Map
- "Hyderabad". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
- "Hyderabad Climate Normals 1971–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "Climatological information for Hyderabad, India". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "BRGF District". Panchayat.gov.in. Retrieved 2010-09-14.
- Screen shot for http://panchayat.gov.in/brgf/Report.do?method=BRGFdistrict
- Screen shot for Backward Region grant fund(BRGF) by Govt of India
- "Telangana and Muslims". TwoCircles.net. Retrieved 2010-09-14.
- Region-wise distribution of religious groups 2001 - Table 7.2 in page 381 of SKC report
- Region-wise distribution of religious groups 2001 - Table 7.3 in page 393 of SKC report
- "Urdu in Andhra Pradesh". LANGUAGE IN INDIA. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "Census of India – DISTRIBUTION OF 10,000 PERSONS BY LANGUAGE". Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2010-09-14.
- Hyderabadi Culture
- Hyderabadi Cultural Spirit
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Telangana|
- Telangana NRI Association (TeNA)is a US based non-profit working towards the cultural and developmental issues of Telangana community worldwide.
- Demand for Telangana State: genuine and justified., Vijaya Bhaskar, 2010
- Official history of AP on AP Government website
- Telangana movement article in US Library of Congress
- Committee on Telangana surpluses – 1969 Report by Justice Bhargava
- Telangana Information Task Force www.eTelangana.org – by rashu.
- Subregionalism in India – A case of Telangana by Duncan B. Forrester. Alternate link
- Planning Commission Document: Regional Balances in AP
- The Historical Context of Andhra and Telangana, 1949–56 – Economic & Political Weekly, February 20, 2010 vol xlv no 8
- State reorganization committee reports at Wiki Source
- Fasting, Mining, Politicking? Telangana and the Burdens of History, D. Parthasarathy
- Modern Hyderabad(Deccan) by John Law, 1914
- The Hyderabad Political System and its Participants by KAREN LEONARD ; Source: The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 30, No. 3 (May, 1971), pp. 569–582 Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2052461
- Nizam – British Relations 1724–1857 by Sarojini Regani published 1963
- Srikrishna Committee Report – Vol I (Main Report)
- Sri Krishna Committee Report – Vol II (Appendix to the report)
- Srikrishna Committee on Telangana: Recommendations at Variance with the Analysis - C.H Hanumanth Rao
||Maharastra||Maharastra and Chhattisgarh||Odisha and Coastal Andhra (part of Andhra Pradesh)|
|Karnataka||Coastal Andhra (part of Andhra Pradesh)|
|Karnataka||Rayalaseema (part of Andhra Pradesh)||Coastal Andhra (part of Andhra Pradesh)|